Implications of financial convergence for regulatory and supervisory regimes for financial services
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Implications of Financial Convergence for Regulatory and Supervisory Regimes for Financial Services. OECD/INPRS/World Bank Contractual Savings Conference Washington, DC April 29- May 3, 2002 Stephen A. Lumpkin OECD. Financial Convergence. Definition of terms:

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Implications of financial convergence for regulatory and supervisory regimes for financial services

Implications of Financial Convergence for Regulatory and Supervisory Regimes for Financial Services

OECD/INPRS/World Bank Contractual Savings Conference

Washington, DC April 29- May 3, 2002

Stephen A. Lumpkin

OECD


Financial convergence
Financial Convergence Supervisory Regimes for Financial Services

Definition of terms:

  • Consolidation--combinations of financial service providers within the same institutional sector

  • Convergence--various types of interfaces between different categories of financial service providers

  • Regulation--the establishment of specific rules of behaviour

  • Supervision--the more general oversight of institutions’ behaviour


Financial convergence1
Financial Convergence Supervisory Regimes for Financial Services

Types of convergence interfaces:

  • cross-investment

  • cross-distribution (e.g. bancassurance, assurbanque, assurfinance, allfinanz)

  • cross-production

  • tie-in sales

  • provision of integrated services, e.g. “one-stop shopping”

  • cross-sector risk transfers


Formal structures for providing integrated financial services
Formal structures for providing integrated financial services

  • Fully integrated financial services provider: production and distribution of all financial products and services in a single corporate entity, with all activities supported by a single pool of capital

  • Universal bank: commercial banking and investment banking activities in one corporate entity, with other financial services, especially insurance, carried out in wholly owned but separately capitalised subsidiaries

  • Single bank or insuranceparent: conducts other financial service activities in separately capitalised subsidiaries


  • Financial holding company services: single holding company holds most or all of the shares of separately incorporated and capitalised subsidiaries

  • Joint ventures

  • Cross-shareholdings

  • Distribution alliances


Implications of corporate structure for risk management and oversight
Implications of corporate structure for risk management and oversight

An institution’s formal structure must comply with legal and regulatory requirements, but might not be fully reflective of a group’s operational structure or risk appetite or risk management

  • risks can exist at the group level that do not appear at the level of individual entities

  • individual entities can look risky while the entire organisation can be well-diversified or hedged


Potential risks associated with integrated financial services groups
Potential risks associated with integrated financial services groups

  • Lack of transparency stemming from complex intra-group exposures

  • risk of contagion due to non-existent or ineffective firewalls

  • risk of multiple gearing

  • problems arising from unregulated group members

  • potential for regulatory arbitrage


Implications of convergence for supervision
Implications of convergence for supervision services groups

  • The potential for intra-group exposures within integrated financial services groups complicates the task of supervision.

  • It increases the need for information sharing, co-ordination and co-operation among authorities (both domestic and international) with responsibility for different institutional components of a financial group to ensure that a group-wide risk assessment and oversight is achieved.


Approaches to financial supervision
Approaches to financial supervision services groups

  • across countries, the rules that are applied to different types of financial service providers regarding their solvency, the types of assets they manage, and the management of their liabilities vary

  • Some would argue that these differences are warranted by corresponding differences in the core business activities, time horizons and risk exposures of these institutions.

  • accordingly, supervision in many countries (especially prudential oversight) varies according to the particular characteristics of each sector


Methods of supervising financial groups
Methods of Supervising financial groups services groups

  • “Solo” or “solo plus” approach--protect the customers and creditors of the regulated entity from monetary losses and delays were the institution to fail

  • “Consolidated” approach--supervision is directed at the top tier of the group, covering all members that provide financial services

    Integrated regulation is generally accompanied by consolidated supervision, but sectoral regulation might or might not be accompanied by consolidated supervision.


Organisational structures for financial supervision
Organisational structures for financial supervision services groups

What are the implications, if any, of financial convergence for the structure of financial supervisory agencies?

Convergence intensifies the need for information sharing, co-ordination and consistency across specialist regulatory bodies. How can this increased information flow best be achieved?

Should the institutional structure of financial supervision reflect the structure of the financial services industry it covers?










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