NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies
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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies Jeff Masek Garik Gutman April 28, 2014 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies Jeff Masek Garik Gutman April 28, 2014. Background. Sentinel-2 is the “Landsat-like” component of the EU Copernicus environmental monitoring program MSI VSWIR coverage from 0.43-2.3 micron (10-60m resolution)

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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies Jeff Masek Garik Gutman April 28, 2014

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Nasa fy14 landsat sentinel 2 studies jeff masek garik gutman april 28 2014

NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies

Jeff Masek

GarikGutman

April 28, 2014


Background

Background

  • Sentinel-2 is the “Landsat-like” component of the EU Copernicus environmental monitoring program

    • MSI VSWIR coverage from 0.43-2.3 micron (10-60m resolution)

    • Sun-synch orbit @ 786km altitude w/ 10:30am crossing

    • 290km swath width (+/- 10.1 degrees at telescope)

    • 10-day repeat at equator for each satellite (5 days w/ Sentinel-2a,b; 2-3 days with S2ab + L8)

  • Sentinel-2a expected to launch April 2015

    • Initial focus on Europe & Africa, global acquisitions start ~1 year later

    • Sentinel-2b to launch 2016

  • Sentinel “free and open” data policy now ratified by EU

  • USGS and ESA working to secure “mirror” S2 archive at EROS


Nasa fy14 landsat sentinel 2 studies jeff masek garik gutman april 28 2014

Spectral Band Comparisons


What s needed to make full use of sentinel 2 data

What’s Needed to Make Full Use of Sentinel-2 Data?

  • Cross-calibration with Landsat / MSI Characterization

  • Access to S2 L1C Data (USGS)

    • TOA, orthorectified reflectance

    • 100 x 100km UTM tiles

  • “Fundamental” Data Records

    • S2 directional surface reflectance

    • L8 (+ Landsat archive) surface reflectance

    • Merged reflectance product

  • Higher-level products from merged record


Nasa preparations for sentinel 2

NASA Preparations for Sentinel-2

  • FY12 & FY13:

    • Initial support for participation in ESA users’ meetings (Woodcock, Vermote)

    • Cross-comparison of integrating spheres used for pre-launch radiometric calibration; analysis of MSI solar diffuser (Markham, Astrium, Czpala-Meyers)

    • Prototype funding of BRDF and atmospheric corrections (Vermote, Justice, Claverie, CESBIO)

  • FY14: Augmentation of selected NASA awards to accelerate preparation for Sentinel-2, including integration with Landsat archive

    • Lays ground work for sustained effort to generate a merged Landsat/S2 data recordandhigher-level products suite (?)

    • Mixture of project planning and initial algorithm development/prototyping

  • FY15: Solicitation of NASA Land Imaging Science Team through LCLUC Program (TBD)


Nasa fy14 landsat sentinel 2 studies jeff masek garik gutman april 28 2014

Proposed Sentinel-2 / Landsat Architecture

USGS

EROS

US Data

Ingest

ESA S2

Archive

- Direct

downlink

- ESA mirror

NASA Earth

Exchange

(NEX)

NASA R&A, Applications

USGS

NASA (ROSES)

USGS, USDA collab

Landsat+S2 Algorithms

- Cross-calibration

- atmospheric correction

- regridding…

NASA / CESBIO


Network connectivity and sentinel 2 data flow

Network Connectivity and Sentinel-2 Data Flow

CCRS – Canada Center for Remote Sensing

EROS – Earth Resources Observation and Science

PACS – Processing and Archive Centers

Courtesy John Dwyer, USGS


L1c access usgs concept of operations

L1C Access: USGS Concept of Operations

  • The Sentinel-2 MSI Level-1C (L1C) product is analogous to Landsat Level-1T (L1T). Approximately 800- 900GB of raw data to be downlinked per day will be processed to L1C by ESA.

  • L1C products areorthorectifiedTop of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance provided as 100x100km2 tiles of 500MB each in UTM projection. L1C products are 16-bit with radiometric conversion coefficients and a QA band.

  • USGS will pull L1C products from PACs for distribution to NASA Ames, Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS), and the general public at no cost.

  • NASA Ames to process L1Cdata to surfacereflectance that will be pulled back to EROS for archive and distribution.

  • USGS estimates for the data archive and

    distribution of Sentinel-2 L1C and

    surface reflectance (SR) products assume

    daily ingest volume of 1.6GB per satellite.

  • Total data archive 6.4TB per day

    • L1C data archive of 3.2TB per day

    • SR data archive of 3.2TB per day

  • Level-1C reprocessed data will

    be replaced – no concurrent versions

Courtesy John Dwyer, USGS


Nasa fy14 landsat sentinel 2 studies jeff masek garik gutman april 28 2014

NASA FY14 Augmentation Teams

Team

Proposed Investigation

Period of performance: ~April 2014 - April 2015

Deliverables are a key element


Fy14 augmentation planning activities

FY14 Augmentation: Planning Activities

  • Cross-calibration & characterization plan (Markham, Czapla-Myers, Helder, Schott)

    • Continued pre-launch calibration activities (e.g. diffuser characterization, SADE)

    • MSI characterization via pre-launch data, DIRSIG simulations

      • What variance will be introduced into an uncorrected time series by mixing Landsat and S2?

    • Post-launch planning (joint vicarious campaigns, PICS characterization, DIRSIG, etc)

  • Fundamental Data Record (reflectance) plan (Roy, VermoteSchaaf, Dungan)

    • What should a merged S2/Landsat reflectance product look like?

    • What algorithms are required to generate this product?

    • Data formats, compositing, grids, tiling approaches

    • Data processing /systems architecture

      • How to phase in processing (e.g. geographic domain)

    • Uncertainty estimation (validation plan)

  • Higher-level Products Plan (Woodcock, Justice, Ganguly)

    • Should the team pursue MODIS-style higher-level products during 2015-2017?

    • If so, what products have highest priority?

      • For what attributes do we need near-daily repeat and 30-m resolution? Why?

      • Geographic/temporal domain? (Phase in starting with Europe/Africa test sites, then Americas?)

      • GTOS ECV’s

      • GEO focus areas

      • NASA Earth Science research areas…

    • Collaboration with USGS products & ECV efforts

    • What algorithmic approaches are most promising?

    • Data processing /systems architecture

    • Uncertainty estimation (validation plan)


Fy14 augmentation algorithms

FY14 Augmentation: Algorithms

  • Cloud/Shadow/Water masking (Woodcock)

  • Atmospheric correction (Vermote)

    • 6S radiative transfer?

    • Aerosol source: image-based, MODIS, Sentinel-3?

  • BRDF correction (Schaaf, Claverie, Schott)

    • NBAR? Uniform solar geometry?

    • Source for BRDF?

    • Testing via DIRSIG

  • Compositing (Roy)

    • To what temporal grain?

    • To what spatial resolution, extent (tiling)?

  • What can realistically be accomplished by mid-2015?

  • Integration into overall processing framework via NEX


Prototype merged radiometric record

Prototype Merged Radiometric Record

Preliminary algorithm flow chart prepared by Martin Claverie (UMD)


Nasa earth exchange nex components

NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Components

Nemani et al., 2011, Trans. of Eos


Nex applications crop water management

NEX Applications: Crop Water Management

Weekly composites:

L5 & L7 & MODIS

NEX

Melton et al. (in press)

Courtesy Forrest Melton, ARC


Discussion

Discussion

  • Team coordination

    • Telecons, Meetings?

  • Scope of activities

    • Are near-term activities & deliverables clear? Are there other activities missing?

    • How ambitious should we be (geographic extent, range of products, …) in the short-term? Long-term?

    • Should we be looking at other sensors (AWIFS, CBERS)?

  • Coordination with other groups

    • ESA

    • CESBIO/CNES

    • USGS & Landsat Science Team


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