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Extra Solar Planets. Geoff Bower. Radial Velocity Detection of Exoplanets. Exoplanet Statistics from Radial Velocity Variations. Transits. HD 209458 Henry et al 1999. Requirements for Transit Detection of Earth. Photometric sensitivity ~ 10^-5 Nstars >> 10^3 Time resolution ~ hours

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extra solar planets

Extra Solar Planets

Geoff Bower

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

radial velocity detection of exoplanets
Radial Velocity Detection of Exoplanets

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

exoplanet statistics from radial velocity variations
Exoplanet Statistics from Radial Velocity Variations

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

transits
Transits

HD 209458

Henry et al 1999

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

requirements for transit detection of earth
Requirements for Transit Detection of Earth
  • Photometric sensitivity ~ 10^-5
  • Nstars >> 10^3
  • Time resolution ~ hours
  • Duration ~ years
  • Continuous viewing

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

tres transiting extrasolar planet search
TrESTransiting Extrasolar Planet Search
  • 3 x 10 cm telescopes
  • 6 x 6 deg FOV
  • V< 16 mag
  • 0.005 mag in 10 minutes

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

tres 2 planet in kepler field
TrES-2 Planet in Kepler Field

T=2.5 days

M=1.3 MJupR=1.2 MJup

O’Donovan et al 2006

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

all transiting planets
All Transiting Planets

Charbonneau et al 2006

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

slide11

TreS-1

HD 209458

Star spot causes bump

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

scintillation noise
Scintillation Noise

< 1sec

TrES

Dunham et al 2004

Dravins et al 1997

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

kepler
Kepler

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

kepler observing program
Kepler Observing Program
  • 4 years
  • Continuous observing
  • 100 square degrees
  • 1.4m mirror/0.95 m corrector
  • 2” pixels
  • 42 x 1024 x 2200 pixels
  • Photometry for 100,00 stars

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

photometry for 100 000 stars
Photometry for 100,000 Stars
  • Subset of pixels selected from photometry
  • Integrated for 15 minutes
  • Smaller subset with 1 minute integrations
  • 10^7 measurements/day x ~10-100 pixels/star
    •  GB/day

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

slide16
Poisson Noise ~ 1/sqrt(Nphotons)
  • Poisson noise sets mirror size
  • Stellar variability is the big unknown and factor to be controlled

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

slide17

450,000 stars brighter than 15th mag

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

Basri et al 2005

most stars are inactive
Most Stars Are Inactive

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

solar variability
Solar Variability

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

slide20

Hall et al 2007

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

stellar variability
Stellar Variability

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

variability limits on planet size
Variability Limits on Planet Size

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

simulated transit
Simulated Transit

Matched filter search

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

slide24

Semi-major axis

1500 Earth mass planets detected in first year

4500 in four years

Assuming 3 terrestrial planets/star

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

planet detection validation
Planet Detection Validation
  • 7 sigma detection (total) in >=4 transits
  • Period constant to 10 ppm from at least 3 transits
  • Duration, depth, shape consistent
  • Star centroid the same in and out of transit
    • Reject background eclipsing star
  • Radial velocity follow-up consistent
  • High resolution imaging

The Transient Universe: AY 250 Spring 2007

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