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A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development 6e. Chapter Sixteen: Schools, Achievement, and Work. John W. Santrock. Schools. Constructivist and direct instruction approaches Constructivist approach

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A topical approach to life span development 6e
A Topical Approach toLife-Span Development 6e

Chapter Sixteen:

Schools, Achievement, and Work

John W. Santrock


  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches

    • Constructivist approach

      • Emphasizes child’s active construction of knowledge and understanding; reflection and critical thinking

      • Teacher provides support for students exploring

        their world and developing knowledge

      • Today: opportunities and collaboration stressed

      • Criticisms: not enough discipline, too relativistic and vague


  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches

    • Direct instruction approach

      • Structured, teacher-centered/controlled

      • Criticisms: creates passive learners, few critical thinking challenges

    • Many recommend: effective teachers use direct and constructivist instruction together


  • Accountability

    • State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role —No Child Left Behind

    • Critics argue that they lead to

      • Single score being used as sole predictor

      • Teaching to test; use of memorization

      • Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills


  • Schools and developmental status

    • Early childhood education

      • The norm in many states, private and publicly funded

      • Many ways young children are educated

    • The child-centered kindergarten

      • Emphasizes the whole child

        • Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development

        • Needs, interests, and learning style

        • Emphasizes learning process


  • Schools and developmental status

    • Montessori approach

      • Originally developed for MR children, then for poor

      • Teacher is facilitator

      • Children encouraged to be early decision makers

      • Fosters independence and cognitive development skills

      • De-emphasizes verbal interactions

      • Criticisms vary


  • Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Education

    • Developmentally appropriate practice

      • focuses on age/individual (uniqueness) appropriateness

      • Recently: more focus on sociocultural factors

    • Developmentally inappropriate practice

      • direct instruction, extensive use of drill/practice, relies on paper-and-pencil activities given to large groups

      • Children show slower development


  • Education for disadvantaged children

    • 1965 – Project Head Start

      • U.S. programs vary for low-income children

      • Proven positive and quality experiences

      • Not all U.S. programs created equal in quality

      • Most successful: well-designed and well-implemented

    • Controversies in early childhood education

      • Include both academic and constructivist approaches


  • Elementary education

    • Change from “home-child’’ to “school-child”

    • New roles and obligations

    • Too often, early schooling has more negative feedback; lowers child’s self-esteem

    • Teachers often pressured to cover curriculum;

      • Tight scheduling; may harm children


  • Educating adolescents

    • Transition to Middle or Junior High School

      • Independent from parent monitoring; more choices

      • Physical and bodily image changes, cognitive changes

      • Impersonal structure, multiple teachers, stressful times

      • “Top dog phenomenon”

    • Benefits

      • More opportunities, friends, challenges, feel grown up

      • More subject choices, intellectual work challenges


  • Effective schools for young adolescents

    • Fears: junior highs being “watered-down” high schools, mimicked curriculum, schedules

      • There are biological, psychological differences

    • Carnegie report:

      • U.S. middle schools: massive, impersonal, and lacking

      • Recommended complete overhaul and changes: more flexible curriculum, more fitness-health programs


  • Effective schools for young adolescents

    • High School

      • Concerns about education and students

        • Needs pathway to student identity achievement

        • Graduate with inadequate skills

        • Enter college needing remediation classes

        • Student drop out rates decreasing today

          • Ethnic and racial differences

          • Gender differences


  • Effective schools for young adolescents

    • Effective programs that discourage high school dropping out include

      • Bill and Melinda Gates foundation funding

      • “I Have A Dream” program

        • Projects adopt entire public grade level or cohorts in housing projects; gives college tuition to high school grads

      • Reading, tutoring, counseling, mentoring programs


  • College and Adult Education

    • Transition to College

      • Replays the top-dog phenomenon

      • Many of same benefits found in high school

      • Movement to a larger, more impersonal school

      • Interact with peers of more diverse backgrounds

      • Increased focus on achievement and assessment

      • More opportunities to explore lifestyles and values

      • Many experience more stress and depression


  • College and Adult Education

    • Adult education includes

      • Literacy training, community development

      • University credit programs, on-the-job training

      • Continuing professional education

    • Women — the majority of adult learners

    • Occurs in many forms, offered by many sources

      • Individual reasons for attending adult ed/college vary


  • Educating children with disabilities

    • Approximately 13.5% (ages 3 to 21) in United States receive special education or related services

    • Learning disability:

      • Difficulty learning/understanding/doing math

      • Gender differences: “Referral bias”?

        • Boys are 3x more diagnosed as girls

      • Diagnosis difficult; guidelines vary among states


  • Educating children with disabilities

    • Dyslexia:

      • Severe impairment in ability to read and spell

      • Brain scans used; difficulty integrating information

    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

      • Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity; onset in childhood

      • Definitive causes unknown; in DSM-IV

      • Medication is common treatment; other treatments vary

      • Stricter behavioral school rules “illuminate” these


  • Educating children with disabilities

    • Autism spectrum disorders

      • Autistic disorder: severe; onset in first three years

      • Asperger syndrome: mild impairments: obsessiveness

      • No proof of being caused by family socialization

      • Affects about 1 million children today


  • Educating children with disabilities

    • Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act; renamed as IDEA in 2004

      • Individualized education plan (IEP) — written program tailored to child with disability

      • Least restrictive environment (LRE) — child with disability educated in setting similar to where other children educated

      • Inclusion — educating child with special education needs in regular classroom


  • Socioeconomic status and ethnicity

    • Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school

      • Schools in poor areas

        • Underfunded, low test scores and graduation rates

        • Young inexperienced teachers, largely segregated

        • Rote learning promoted

      • More minorities put in remedial/special education classes, suspended from school

      • Asians and Whites more likely put in advanced classes


  • SES and ethnicity

    • Improving relationships among ethnically diverse

      • Turn class into jigsaw classroom

      • Positive personal contact with diverse other students

      • Engage in perspective taking; reduce bias

      • View school and community as a team

        • Comprehensive school plan, assessment strategy, and staff development plan

        • Mental health/support team

        • Parents’ program


  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    • Extrinsic

      • Activity is means to an end

      • Often motivated by rewards and punishment

    • Intrinsic

      • Activity is an end in itself

      • Self-determination and personal choices

      • Personal responsibility for behavior encouraged


  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    • Developmental shifts

      • Intrinsic motivation increases with age for most

        • Decreases in early high school

      • Greatest extrinsic increase and intrinsic decrease between sixth and seventh grade

        • Blamed on impersonalization experiences, increased evaluations (standardized tests) and competition


  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    • Conclusions

      • Create stimulating cognitive environments

      • Promote more self-responsibility for student learning

      • Some rewards can undermine learning; rewards most effective with high interest

      • Rewards convey mastery information


  • Mastery motivation and mindset

    • Mastery Motivation

      • Mastery orientation— task-oriented; concerned with learning strategies

      • Helpless orientation— one seems trapped by difficulty and attributes one’s difficulty to a lack of ability

      • Performance orientation— achievement outcomes; winning matters


  • Mastery motivation and mindset

    • Mindset

      • Cognitive view of oneself

      • Fixed mindset: “carved in stone”

      • Growth mindset: belief in change

      • Promotes optimistic or pessimistic outlook

      • Shaping begins due to interactions with others

        • Growth mindset shows higher achievement results

    • Self-Efficacy

      • Belief that one can master a situation/have good results


  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring

    • Self-efficacy and achievement improve when individuals set goals that are

      • Specific

      • Proximal (short-term)

      • Challenging

    • Can set both long and short-term goals

    • Expectations linked to outcomes/efforts

      • Setting highest standards that can be achieved is best


  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring

    • Purpose

      • Accomplish something meaningful to one’s self; contribute something to the world beyond one’s self

      • Teachers, parents convey importance of goals; should discuss where goals lead to (long-term picture)

      • Negative influences

        • Some TV/media, violent models of aggression/video games, unrealistic views of the world, passive learning, stereotyping, and other distractions


  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring

    • Purpose

      • Technology concerns for children, emerging adults

        • Computer and Internet

        • Online social environments (MySpace, Facebook)

        • Proper use, restrictions can be beneficial

      • Internet and aging adults

        • Fastest growing population of users

        • Search for information, use for fast communication


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • Aging and culture

      • Good life based on health, security, kinship network

      • Collectivistic cultures (e.g. China, Japan) have high respect for older persons than individualistic cultures like United States

        • Possess valuable knowledge, control key family resources, remain “useful,” aging role changes have greater capacity, integrated extended family, role continuity throughout life span


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • Socioeconomic status (SES)

      • Grouping by occupational, educational, and economic similarities

      • SES differences are proxy for material, human, and social capital within and beyond the family

    • SES variations in neighborhoods

      • Affect children’s adjustment: disadvantages/advantages

      • Crime and isolation linked to low self-esteem, distress


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • SES differences

      • Lower-SES parents

        • More concerns with child conformity to society, home of strong parental authority, corporal punishment use and more directive than interactive communication

      • Higher-SES parents

        • Concerned with delayed gratification, discipline rules discussed with children, less physical punishment, more interactive conversation


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • Poverty

      • Challenges of poverty have impact on adult lives

      • 2006: 17% of children under age 18 in poverty

      • U.S. poverty level demarcated by family structure and ethnic lines; minorities overrepresented

      • Psychological impact

        • Powerless, less financial resources, alternatives are restricted; environmental inequities is damaging


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • Families and poverty

      • Links between economic well-being, parental behavior, and social adjustment

      • Feminization of poverty

      • Programs that have made an positive impact

        • Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)

        • New Hope Program


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • SES, poverty, and aging

      • Older adults in poverty linked to increased physical and mental health problems

      • Poverty among older minorities 2 to 3 times higher

      • Retirement forces reduced income and spending

        • Expenses, cost-of-living increases

        • Social security for those over 65 years


  • Ethnicity

    • United States is more ethnically diverse than ever before

      • Immigration

        • High rates impact on ethnic population growth

        • Special stressors for immigrants (language, changed SES, support system separation, struggle to adapt but preserve ethnic identity)

        • Acculturation: parents and children often at different stages of the process


  • Ethnicity and SES

    • Research unclear due to methods used

    • Ethnicity and families

      • Ethnic group variations in size, structure, composition, kinship network, levels of education and income

      • Highest risks of poverty

        • Single or uneducated parents

        • All parents face childrearing challenges

        • Greatest harm to children


  • Ethnicity and culture

    • Differences and diversity

      • Historical, economic, and social experiences produce differences between minority groups

      • Stereotyping of perceived deficits are harmful

      • Great diversity between groups seen as “one”

        • Latinos: experiences of Cubans and Puerto Ricans

        • Asians: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai

    • Ethnicity and aging

      • Face problems of racism, ageism, and sexism for women

Careers work and retirement
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Career Developmental Changes

    • Young children

      • Idealistic fantasies about what to be when they grow up

    • High school

      • Serious career decisions as different options explored

    • College

      • Choose major/specialization leading to work in a field

    • Early adulthood

      • Start full-time occupation

Careers work and retirement1
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Career Development

    • Match personality type to career

      • Realistic: prefer solitude, being outdoors

      • Investigative: interested in ideas, intellectualist

      • Artistic: creative, innovative ways for self-expression

      • Social: helping orientation, desire to be with people

      • Enterprising: dominating, good at persuasion

      • Conventional: detail-oriented, prefer highly structured situations

Careers work and retirement2
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Career Development

    • Important aspect of choosing a career — match career to one’s values

    • Monitoring the Occupational Outlook

    • Labor force participation of women increasing

    • Work in Adolescence

      • 90% receive high school diplomas

      • 75% work part-time and attend school

Careers work and retirement3
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Work in Adolescence

    • U.S. high school students

      • 75% work part-time and attend school

      • Most work 16-20 hours per week

      • Most work in service jobs

    • Work more than in other developed countries; less than developing countries

Careers work and retirement4
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Work

    • Emerging adulthood

      • Many variations of work patterns exist in merging roles of student and worker

      • Co-op programs, some dropouts, most graduate

      • Transition strongly influenced by level of education

      • Special concern: many attending community colleges but drop out or don’t finish

Careers work and retirement5
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Work

    • Adulthood

      • The work landscape

      • National survey: 55% less productive due to stress; 52% considered or made a career change because of stress in the workplace

      • Unemployment

      • Dual-career couples

        • Males assuming more home responsibilities

        • Women assuming more ‘breadwinner’ roles

Careers work and retirement6
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Work

    • Middle Adulthood

      • Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection

      • Recognizing limitations in career progress

      • Deciding whether to change jobs or careers

      • Rebalance family and work

      • Planning for retirement

Careers work and retirement7
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Work

    • Late Adulthood

      • Percentage of older adults who work part-time steadily increased since 1960s

        • Good health

        • Strong psychological commitment to work

        • Distaste for retirement

        • Cognitive ability is best predictor

      • Many participate in unpaid work

      • Age affects many aspects of work

Careers work and retirement8
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Retirement

    • Option to retire late twentieth-century phenomenon in United States

    • Today’s workers will spend 10 to 15% of their lives in retirement

    • Flexibility is key factor in adjustment

Careers work and retirement9
Careers, Work, and Retirement

  • Retirement

    • Many return to work after retirement — about 7 million in 2006

    • Adjustment to retirement varies according to life changes and circumstances

    • Retirement planning includes more than successful financial planning