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Relations. ORION Active Structure. What Is A Relation. A relation can be an abstract family relation - He is my cousin - the relation seems to be separate from the thing, but it can just as easily seem to be the thing.

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slide1

Relations

ORION

Active Structure

what is a relation
What Is A Relation

A relation can be an abstract family relation - He is my cousin - the relation seems to be separate from the thing, but it can just as easily seem to be the thing.

A car isn’t a heap of spare parts - one of its necessary components is an assembly relation over all the other components, with each of those having an assembly relation over their components, to

make them what they are

This way, relations become

indistinguishable from

objects - they are the objects

relation connections
Relation Connections

This functions as the object

Logical

Object1

Relation

Two synchronised existence connections

Object2

Existence

A Relation has a minimum of four connections that can be either input or output

Predicate, Boolean, Existence and Time logic are used simultaneously to represent the interaction of relations - Existence and Logical values are partially dependent on each other

assertion
Assertion

Logical

Object1

Relation

Object2

Existence

Setting all inputs to True/Exists asserts the Relation exists and is true

Sometimes a relation is false - “not to exceed”

slide5
Test

Logical

Object1

Relation

Object2

Existence

  • Setting one or more inputs to MayExist allows querying of the Relation:
    • Who owns this car
    • Does John own this car
    • How long has John owned a green car
    • What Relation exists between John and this car
relations and things
Relations and Things

Thing

Entity

Relation

State

John

Run

Hot

A Relation is not an Entity, but it is useful to talk about it as if it were

attributes
Attributes

Person

Cut

Logical

John

Cut

Rope

Existence

Location

John Cut The Rope

Location

We can allow Relations to have attributes like Location in the same way as Entities

components
Components

Person

Cut

Logical

Fred

Cut

Rope

Location

Existence

Use

Knife

Fred Used A Knife To Cut The Rope

A Relation can have components - other Relations - in the same way an Entity has components

relations and objects
Relations and Objects
  • We can say
    • Fred bought a Ford or a Chevrolet
  • and know that Fred bought a car. We can also say
    • Fred is Joe’s brother or cousin
  • and know (and make use of the fact) that there is a family relation between Fred and Joe.
  • Making relations look like any other object allows us to approach the flexibility of natural language
relations on relations
Relations On Relations

Relations connect other relations just as well as they connect objects

symbolizing relations
Symbolizing Relations

If we allow Relations to have the same sorts of properties as Entities - Attributes, Components, Members - then we can build complex Relations out of simple ones by adding properties the text provides, in a way that could not be handled by fixed parameters

Logical

Object1

Relation

Object2

Existence

relations primitives
Relations & Primitives
  • Verbs do not always map directly into relation primitives
    • She gave John a headache
  • This does not fit the primitive of Give - the transference of possession, because “She” does not have the headache
  • Instead, we need to transform it into
    • She caused John to have a headache
  • The more common verbs have many senses, which can be differentiated by the types of object they connect
relation matching
Relation Matching

When matching verbs to relations, we have to match the type of subject, object or multiple objects if ditransitive, to ensure the correct meaning is found.

Some verbs, like “Give Up” are collocational, and can have part of the collocation remotely, as “Give It Up”

Passive verbs have subjects connected through prepositions, as “He was shot by Fred”, so a whole specialised matching structure using maps for particular meanings is built around prepositions

relation matching1
Relation Matching

The matching process is active, as partial matching may occur on any connection, causing a reduction in range of permissible objects on the other connections

The matching backtracks as it connects and searches

matching and augmenting
Matching and Augmenting
  • Matching may result in tentative new structure being built as the meaning shifts
    • “Give” becomes “Cause To Have”
  • where the word “give” turns into a structure that is “cause to have” through a map for the particular meaning, matched against the parameters.
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An Example

-

Fred in Miami

miami contains fred
Miami Contains Fred

The RELATION operator is controlled logically and existentially through Time, and it in turn controls a CONTAINS operator, asserting Fred’s location

fine control
Fine Control
  • With this level of control, we can say
    • Fred is in Miami
    • Fred is not in Miami
    • Fred could be in Miami
    • Fred may have been in Miami some time in the last six months
    • Fred or Joe will be in Miami or Boca Raton soon
all together now
All Together Now

The combination of logical, existential and time control over relations, together with alternatives on any connection, allows relations built from active structure to represent a wide range of statements

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