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Transport Problems. Comparison between MDCs & LDCs. The major transport problems. Major urban transport problems in common. 1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion 2. insufficient / substandard public transport service 3. narrow street, inadequate parking space

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transport problems

Transport Problems

Comparison between MDCs & LDCs

major urban transport problems in common
Major urban transport problems in common
  • 1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion
  • 2. insufficient / substandard public transport service
  • 3. narrow street, inadequate parking space
  • 4. traffic accidents & pedestrian safety
  • 5. air & noise pollution
  • 6. –ve impacts on urban growth
1 increasing commuter traffic traffic congestion
MDCs:

Heavy reliance on automobiles (economic growth)

long commuting journey & peak hours (suburbanization)

Reduced traffic speeds

e.g. < 15 km / hr in

many US cities

LDCs:

- Narrow streets

Poor traffic mgt

(even animals are

found wandering

on streets; why?)

Poor maintenance of cars: effects?

Local, traditional & backward forms of transport

e.g. carts, rickshaws

1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion
slide5

2. insufficient / substandard public transport service

  • LDCs:
  • Outdated, insufficient and overused
  • Many unserved areas
  • Mostly non-powered / man-power vehicles
  • Inadequate funding
  • MDCs:
  • Insufficient public tr. Service to meet the peak-hour demand

e.g. Metro in Paris

>115% capacity

Tokyo rail system

>300% of capacity

slide6

3. narrow street, inadequate parking space

  • LDCs:
  • Insufficient road surface
  • MDCs:
  • More serious

(why?)

(hint: econ activities & ownership of private cars)

- double-parking along roadsides

slide7

4. traffic accidents & pedestrian safety

  • LDCs:
  • Many pedestrians on streets (why?)
  • Pedestrians compete with vehicles on streets
  • MDCs:
  • Widening of roads leads to shrinking of pedestrian walkways
  • Shortening of time of green light crossing for pedestrians
slide8

5. air & noise pollution

  • MDCs & LDCs:
  • Use of low-quality fuels / high sulphur content /

diesel vehicles

  • Pollutants: exhaust gases, including CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, lead
  • effects: smog, acid rain, health problems (respiratory diseases, lung cancer, brain damage, e.g. kid’s IQ in rural vs urban in UK)
  • Increasing burning of fossil fuels
  • effects: urban heat island effect, global warming
slide9

6. –ve impacts on urban growth

  • MDCs & LDCs:
  • Increase in transport cost
  • Decrease in productivity
  • Increase in traffic demand, upsetting dev’t plan

e.g. influx of immigrants

  • Hindering future city growth

e.g. inadequate space for comprehensive tr.

improvement projects

- Lacing proper inter-modal co-ordination

major causes
MDCs

Rapid pop. growth

(e.g. rural-urban migration, immigrants), high std of living

Suburbanization & industrialization

Insufficient funding

Specialization of functional / spatial segregation of urban land uses

(longer work trips)

LDCs

Rapid pop. growth

(e.g. natural increase, rural-urban migration, overurbanization)

Primate cities

Insufficient funding

Lack of public service

More mixed land use

(live there work there)

Major causes
solutions1
solutions
  • 1. staggered working hours
  • 2. transport priority measures:

e.g. bus-only lanes, traffic lights,

yellow junction boxes, restricted

time

  • 3. construction of new roads

e.g. ring road in HK & bypasses?

  • 4. public transport

e.g. ‘park and ride’ scheme

slide14

solutions

  • 5. new transport mode
    • e.g. hybrid car, Euro diesel car
  • 6. separating traffic and pedestrians

e.g. flyovers, pedestrian zone

  • 7. higher charges

e.g. tax on new vehicle purchase,

1st time registration, parking,

fuel, electronic road - pricing

system

slide15

solutions

  • 8. decentralization of eco. activities

e.g. industries, retailing firms

from the city centre

  • 9. education on road safety
    • e.g. road crossing & drink-driving laws
  • 10. R&D

e.g. cleaner fuels & engines

  • 11. Better town planning

e.g. decentralization, new towns

(self-contained communities)

solution problem free

Solution – problem-free?

An example of building ring roads & bypasses

ring roads and bypasses advantages
Ring roads and bypasses: advantages
  • Allowing traffic to pass a city
  • Without getting into the busy inner areas
slide18

Ring roads and bypasses: problems

  • Conflict of interests – for? against?
  • Environmentalists?
  • Residents?
  • Landlords?
  • Shop owners?
are there best practices

Are there ‘best practices’?

How to work out the best strategy to solve urban transport problems?

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