CE-332 CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT. CHP 4 - PROJECT CHRONOLOGY LECTURER : ASS OC . PROF. DR. AHMET ÖZTAŞ UNIVERSITY OF GAZİANTEP DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 4. CHP 4- PROJECT CHRONOLOGY. Introduction Project initiation Feasibility analysis Financing
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CHP 4 - PROJECT CHRONOLOGY
LECTURER : ASSOC. PROF. DR. AHMET ÖZTAŞ
UNIVERSITY OF GAZİANTEP
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
In this chapter you will learn the following:
Life of a facility goes through many phases.
Figure 4.1 shows a design/build/use/dispose scenario for a shopping mall.
Life cycle of a shopping mall:
Concept estimate of cost and timing
option to abandon
Progressive refinement of cost and timing in relation to the project’s objectives.
option to abandon
DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION
option to abandon
Progressive and continuous control of cost and timing
Who are the main Parties to a project? . . .
All construction activity is the result of basic economic demand.
Individuals needs homes, roads, stores, shelter, etc.
Specific construction projects arise because corporations or government bodies recognize the need --- serve this demand and act to create them. Construction activity tends to foster further construction activity.
Recognizing needs is first step, but there must be a way to move from recognition to reality. Answer lies in economic structure of the country.
Before deciding to invest in a specific area, an investor wants to be sure on an adequate return. Therefore before any commitment, an analysis is performed to examine the proposed investment from several standpoints.
These are shown on figure;
Cost of money
During the early analysis stage, owner consults
If project gets past the first hurdle of profitability for the investor, owner must arrange financial backing for some of the work. Some of it provide himself.
Commonly, initial investor acquires outside funds to supplement his or her own.
Example: A corporation wishing to build a factory could barrow from a bank or sell additional stocks or bonds.
Whatever the source of additional funds, other individuals or firms decide to lend or invest funds based on their own expectation of return on investment.
If owner decide to proceed, hires a design professional. If he elects to proceed using a construction management mode, he chooses a construction professional, Who provides cost, schedule, and construction advice throughout the design process.
Design is divided into 4 stages.
A program is a written statement of the requirements of the building. It is the basis of design.
Written by owner or user of building,
by architect, or
by a professional hired.
The nature of the programming process depends on two things:
Using these information owner proceed or cancel
When programming is complete, the owner has information about:
Once the program is complete and the owner
has decided to proceed, the designer begins
actual design of the project.
The process begins with the schematic design-the stage in which the designer defines the building’s characteristics in a number of ways.
Before schematic design begins;
When the schematic design is complete, the owner is again faced with the decision to proceed further or to cancel the project. At this time, all information developed to date-market information, financing costs, construction costs and design-are factored into the decision.
When project team enters design development, it pursues a single design concept.
The purpose of this stage is to refine the design and obtain detailed information from the users about their requirements.
During this phase owner, designer and construction professional finalize the design of major building systems.
For example – structural, plumbing, elevator, roofing, mechanical, exterior façade, electrical.
Architect creates final working construction documents used to bid the job for construction and to build the job in the field. Documents including specifications and drawings, Should meet
Procurement: overall process of finding and purchasing the materials called for in the contract and hiring the best subcontractors to build the project. Construction documents must be accurate and must clearly communicate to the bidders.
First task --- hire many subcontractors
In traditional system … owner (with help of architect) requests bids from a list of qualified contractors.
In CM system … project documents are divided into bid packages. owner (with help of architect and CM) evaluate requested bids.
Sometimes owner purchase equipment or materials before a contractor hired. Such material is known long-lead items.
Once procurement process completed, construction can begin
Main element: task of managing and coordinating the field operations. This means;
To accomplish this task, construction professional
A parallel task is contract administration.
After construction completed, project must be turned over to owner for use during the rest of its economic life.
Turn over involves complicated technical issues and problems
For example: testing of piping
Turnover is also a legal process, involves various legal certification, such as certification of occupancy, and certificate of substantial completion. The process is long and tedious.
Document includes …
This phase is the responsibility of owner or tenant of building.
In this, building is put to the use for which it was intended.
The period can last for many years before a major renovation is necessary.
This phase is also the period of greatest expenditure on the project total operating cost are higher.
At the end of its useful life, a project or a facility may meet any one of a number of fates.
It may be closed down or simply abandoned.
It may be disassembled or removed.
It may also be renovated or overhauled
People are involved in the life cycle of a building.
Construction Services during design