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The Council for Frontiers of Knowledge 2012 Munyonyo , Kampala. Policy and Development: A role for social security?. Robert Walker. The Council for Frontiers of Knowledge 2012 Munyonyo , Kampala. Policy and Development: A role for social security?. Social. Robert Walker.

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right to social security
Right to social security
  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 22

1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights

social security
Social security

Goal

  • Protect against inadequate income caused by:
  • Sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, old age, the death of a family member or by insufficient family support
  • Casual/under employment

Mechanisms

  • Contributory benefits
  • Universal schemes
  • Categorical benefits
  • Conditional benefits
  • Social employment guarantee schemes,
  • Mutual benefits (e.g. micro-insurance)
  • Occupational benefits
coverage

Low income

Med

Coverage

High

Work injury

Matern-

ity

Family allowce

Old age

Sickness

Unempl

coverage1

Low income

Med

Coverage

High

Work injury

Matern-

ity

Family allowce

Old age

Sickness

Unempl

coverage2

Low income

Med

Coverage

High

Work injury

Matern-

ity

Family allowce

Old age

Sickness

Unempl

coverage3

Low income

Med

Coverage

High

Work injury

Matern-

ity

Family allowce

Old age

Sickness

Unempl

ILO (2010a), Extending Social Security to All: A Guide Through Challenges and Options, Geneva: ILO.

provision in uganda
Provision in Uganda

ILO (2010b), World Social Security Report 2010/11: Providing Coverage in Times of Crisis and Beyond, Geneva: ILO.

total social security expenditure
Total social security expenditure

Uganda

0.4%

ILO (2010b), World Social Security Report 2010/11: Providing Coverage in Times of Crisis and Beyond, Geneva: ILO.

total social security spending
Total social security spending

ILO (2010b), World Social Security Report 2010/11: Providing Coverage in Times of Crisis and Beyond, Geneva: ILO.

constraints
Constraints
  • Finance
  • ILO minimum social security package of
    • basic child benefits
    • an employment guarantee scheme (100 days)
    • universal basic old-age
    • disability pension
    • Universal essential health care
constraints1
Constraints
  • Finance
  • The projected cost
    • around 2.2 per cent of GDP for Viet Nam and Pakistan to
    • 5 per cent for Kenya and Tanzania
    • 5.7 per cent for Nepal
constraints2
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • System design
    • MT/CCT X
    • MIG/U categorical 
  • Contracting out administration
  • Investment
constraints3
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Bribery
  • Nepotism
  • Evasion of tax and social security
constraints4
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption

Philippines, 2005

  • Collected only 26 per cent of contributions due for employees working in the formal sector
constraints5
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption

India, 2001

  • Improved enforcement resulted in addition of 116,000 enterprises 11.5 million workers to the Employees’ Provident Fund, 5.79 million of them first time members
constraints6
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Demographics

Issues

  • Aging population
constraints8
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Demographics
  • Informal economy

Definitions

  • to activity that falls de facto or de jure out of the reach of law and social security
constraints9
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Demographics
  • Informal economy

Conundrum

  • Without social security, point at which labour demand matches the supply of labour generates wages that are so low that they are at or below subsistence level.
  • The lack of social security perpetuates the dominance of the informal economy the characteristics of which inhibit the introduction of social security provision.
innovation in social security provision
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers
innovation in social security provision1
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers

Ghana

Informal Sector Fund (SIS) 2008

  • Principal goal: retirement income
  • Participants can use their savings as collateral, enabling them to access microcredit
  • Members can also withdraw part of their contributions
    • to cope with financial shocks,
    • school fees
    • health insurance premiums
    • other urgent expenses.
innovation in social security provision2
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers

Mauritius

  • A universal non-contributory minimum income guarantee for older people (the Basic Retirement Pension).
  • Mandatory income-related pension schemes– the National Pension Fund (NPF) and the National Savings Fund (NSF)
  • Targeted voluntary schemes for persons not covered by above
innovation in social security provision3
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers

Mauritius

  • A universal non-contributory minimum income guarantee for older people (the Basic Retirement Pension).
  • Mandatory income-related pension schemes– the National Pension Fund (NPF) and the National Savings Fund (NSF)
  • Targeted voluntary schemes for persons not covered by above
innovation in social security provision4
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-credit/insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers

Mugabi (2010), sample of 120 users in Iganga

innovation in social security provision5
Innovation in social security provision
  • Penetrating the informal sector
  • Universal social pensions
  • Micro-credit/insurance
  • Conditional cash transfers

Mugabi (2010), sample of 120 users in Iganga

innovation in social security provision6
Innovation in social security provision

II. National social protection floors

4. Members should put in place and complete as rapidly as possible, and maintain,

their social protection floors comprising basic social security guarantees.

The guarantees should ensure at a minimum that, over the life cycle, all in need have

access :

a) to essential health care and

b) to basic income security

which together secure effective access to goods and services defined as necessary at the national level.

101st Session of the International Labour Conference,

30 May - 14 June 2012

constraints10
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Demographics
  • Informal economy

India, 2001

  • Improved enforcement resulted in addition of
  • 116,000 enterprises
  • 11.5 million workers to the Employees’ Provident Fund,
    • 5.79 million of them first time members
constraints11
Constraints
  • Finance
  • Limited administrative capacity
  • Corruption
  • Informal economy
  • Demographics

Issues

  • Aging population
  • Migration
provision in uganda1
Provision in Uganda

ILO (2010b), World Social Security Report 2010/11: Providing Coverage in Times of Crisis and Beyond, Geneva: ILO.

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