Progress on z pinch ife and hif target work on z
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Progress on Z-Pinch IFE and HIF Target Work on Z . Part 1: Z-Pinch IFE concept Part 2: Z-Pinch IFE program plan for FY04 $4M Part 3: HIF/Z-Pinch collaborations: P4 experiments on Z. Craig Olson Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185.

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Progress on Z-Pinch IFE and HIF Target Work on Z

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Progress on Z-Pinch IFE and HIF Target Work on Z

Part 1: Z-Pinch IFE concept

Part 2: Z-Pinch IFE program plan for FY04 $4M

Part 3: HIF/Z-Pinch collaborations: P4 experiments on Z

Craig Olson

Sandia National Laboratories

Albuquerque, NM 87185

15th Int. Symp. on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

Princeton University

Princeton, NJ

June 7-11, 2004

Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Z-Pinch IFE concept

What has already been accomplished

that is relevant to Z-Pinch IFE

x-rays:1.8 MJ of x-rays on Z (demonstrated) available now

low cost: $30/J for ZR (demonstrated cost)

$17/J goal for X-1 high yield study (1999)

high efficiency: wall plug to x-rays: ~15% on Z (demonstrated)

can be optimized to: ~25% or more

capsule compression experiments on Z:

double-pinch hohlraum1: Cr  14-20 (demonstrated),

symmetry ~3% (demonstrated)

dynamic hohlraum2:  24 kJ x-rays absorbed, Cr  10,

up to 8x1010 DD neutrons (demonstrated)

hemisphere compression for fast ignition3: Cr  3 (demonstrated)

(1Cuneo, et al.; 2Bailey, Chandler, Vesey, et al.; 3Slutz, et al.)

repetitive pulsed power:

RHEPP magnetic switching technology:

2.5 kJ @ 120 Hz (300 kW ave. pwr. demonstrated)

LTD (linear transformer driver) technology:

being developed (compact, direct, simple)

The long-term goal of Z-Pinch IFE is to produce an economically attractive power plant using high-yield z-pinch-driven targets

(3 GJ) at low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz)

Z-Pinch IFE DEMO (ZP-3, the first study) used 12 chambers, each with 3 GJ at 0.1 Hz, to produce 1000 MWe

The near-term goal of Z-Pinch IFE is to address the science issues of

repetitive pulsed power drivers, recyclable transmission lines, high-

yield targets, and thick-liquid wall chamber power plants

Z-Pinch IFE Team (1000 and 6000, plus Universities &Industry)

C. L. Olson,a G. E. Rochau,a S. A. Slutz,a C. W. Morrow,a G. A. Rochau,a R. E. Olson,a A. R. Parker,a M. E. Cuneo,a D. L. Hanson,a G. R. Bennett,a T. W. L. Sanford,a G. A. Chandler,a J. E. Bailey,a W. A. Stygar,a J. L. Porter,a R. A. Vesey,a T. A. Mehlhorn,a K. W. Struve,a M. G. Mazarakis,a L. X. Schneider,a K. R. Prestwich,a G. Benevides,a T. J. Renk,a T. J. Tanaka,a M. A. Ulrickson,a D. H. McDaniel,a M. K. Matzen,a J. P. Quintenz,a W. B. Gauster,a P. F. Peterson,b J. S. De Groot,c R. R. Peterson,d,e D. Kammer,e I. Golovkin,e G. L. Kulcinski,e E. Mogahed,e I. Sviatoslavsky,e M. Sawan,e C. Gibson,fH. Tran,g P. Panchukh, R. Lumiai

aSandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

bUniversity of California, Berkeley, CA cUniversity of California, Davis, CA

dLos Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

eUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

fGeneral Atomics, San Diego, CA

gUniversity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

hEG&G, Albuquerque, NM

iInControl, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

US/Russia collaboration on Z-Pinch IFE









Z-Pinch IFE Road Map


Z-Pinch ETF

  $1B




Z-Pinch High Yield

Z-Pinch Ignition


Z-Pinch IRE

 $150M (TPC)


Z-Pinch IFE



 $5M /year

Z-Pinch IFE

target fab.,

power plant


 $5M /year




Z-Pinch IFE PoP

 $10M /year

Z-Pinch IFE



 $2M /year

Z-Pinch IFE

target fab.,

power plant


 $2M /year

Z-Pinch IFE CE

 $400k /year



Year Single-shot, NNSA/DP Repetitive for IFE, OFES/VOIFE

Driver pulsed power: _________

Marx generator/ magnetic switching linear transformer driver

water line technology (RHEPP technology) (LTD technology)

Power feed: ____

triax coax

RTL: ____

Flibe/electrical coating Flibe immiscible material

(e. g., low activation ferritic steel)

Target: __

double-pinch dynamic hohlraumfast ignition

Chamber: _

dry-wall wetted-wall thick-liquid wall solid/voids

Z-Pinch IFE Matrix of Possibilities

(choose one from each category)

Z-Pinch Driver: ______________

Marx generator/ magnetic switching linear transformer driver

water line technology (RHEPP technology) (LTD technology)

RTL (Recyclable Transmission Line): _____

Flibe/electrical coating immiscible material

(e. g., low activation ferritic steel)

Target: _

double-pinch dynamic hohlraumfast ignition

Chamber: ____

dry-wall wetted-wall thick-liquid wall solid/voids

(e. g., Flibe foam)

Mainly science: z-pinch target physics

Mainly engineering/technology: z-pinch driver, RTL, chamber

Z-pinches offer the promise of a cost-effective energy-rich source of x-rays for IFE

X-1 (total energy)





Proto II


ZR will be within a factor of 2-3 in current (4-9 in energy) of a High Yield driver.

(all are  60 MA)

( 90 MA)

( 60 MA)

(28 MA)

(18 MA)

(10 MA)

(10 MA)

(1 MA)

Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology is compact and easily rep-rateable

  • LTD uses parallel-charged capacitors in a cylindrical geometry, with close multiple triggered switches, to directly drive inductive gaps for an inductive voltage adder driver (Hermes III is a 20 MV inductive voltage adder accelerator at SNL)

  • LTD requires no oil tanks or water tanks

  • LTD study (as shown) would produce 10 MA in about 1/4 the size of Saturn

  • LTD pioneered in Tomsk, Russia


High Efficiency (~ 90% for driver)

Low Cost

Switches: ball-gaps in air, pressurized gas, solid-state

Easily rep-rateable for 0.1 Hz

The Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) Concept

Z-pinch power plant chamber uses an RTL (Recyclable Transmission Line) to provide the standoff between the driver and the target


(connects to driver)






10-20 Torr

Inert Gas

Yield and Rep-Rate: few GJ every 3-10 seconds per chamber (0.1 Hz - 0.3 Hz)

Thick liquid wall chamber: only one opening (at top) for driver; nominal pressure (10-20 Torr)

RTL entrance hole is only 1% of the chamber surface area (for R = 5 m, r = 1 m)

Flibe absorbs neutron energy, breeds tritium, shields structural wall from neutrons

Eliminates problems of final optic, pointing and tracking N beams, high speed target injection

Requires development of RTL

Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) status/issues

RTL movement (“automobile assembly line technology”)*

RTL electrical turn-on*

RTL low-mass limit and electrical conductivity*

RTL structural properties/ chamber pressure*

RTL mass handling*

RTL shrapnel formation

RTL vacuum connections/ electrical connections*

RTL activation/ waste stream analysis*

RTL shock disruption to fluid walls

RTL manufacturing/ cost*

RTL optimum configuration (coax, triax, convolute,

shape, inductance, material, mass)

RTL power flow limits (physics of magnetic insulation)

Effects of post-shot EMP, plasma, droplets, debris up the RTL

Shielding of sensitive accelerator/power flow feed parts


* initial investigations during LDRD phase

considerable list of science issues remains

RTL research completed under LDRDs

RTL electrical turn-onSaturn experiments (2000)

tin, Al, stainless-steel all show negligible losses

RTL low-mass andSaturn experiments (2001)

electrical conductivity 20 mylar; 50, 100, 250 steel

RTL mass could be as low as 2 kg

RTL mass  50 kg has low resistive losses

RTL structural Calculations (U. Wisconsin) (2002)

full-scale RTL (50 kg) of 25 mill steel ok for

background pressure  10-20 Torr

RTL manufacturing (allowed RTL budget is a few $ for 3 GJ)

Flibe casting ($0.70/RTL)

ferritic steel stamping ( $1.20-3.95/RTL)

RTL Structural

RTL FINITE ELEMENT MODEL constructed in ANSYS to perform structural analysis

R = 50 cm

r = 5 cm

L = 200 cm

25 mil steel

disc 10 cm lip

Fusion Technology Institute

University of Wisconsin, Madison

RTL Structural


78 Torr

RTL buckles at

1.52 psi = 78 Torr

as shown

20 Torr

no effect

(safe operating point)

Fusion Technology Institute

University of Wisconsin, Madison

Laser Source


5.5 mm

10 mm

NIF Scale

Z-pinch-driven-hohlraums have similar topology to laser-driven-hohlraums, but larger scale-size

Double ended hohlraum

35 mm

Dynamic hohlraum

6 mm

Code calculations and analytic scaling predict z-pinch driver requirements for IFE DEMO

Double-Pinch Hohlraum

Dynamic Hohlraum

current /x-rays

Eabs / yield

current /x-rays

Eabs / yield

54 – 95 MA

12-37 MJ

2.4 – 7.2 MJ

530 – 4400 MJ

2 x 62-68 MA

2 x (16-19) MJ

1.3 – 2.6 MJ

400 – 4000 MJ

Based on these results, an IFE target for DEMO will require:

double-pinch hohlraumdynamic hohlraum

36 MJ of x-rays (2x66MA) 30 MJ of x-rays (86 MA)

3000 MJ yield 3000 MJ yield

(G = 83) (G = 100)

J. Hammer, M. Tabak, R. Vesey, S. Slutz, J. De Groot

Thick liquid walls essentially alleviate the “first wall” problem, and can lead to a faster development path

Z-Pinch Power Plant - Proposed Cartridge Cycle

Z-Pinch IFE Program Plan

for $4M for FY04

Key Scientific Question for Z-Pinch IFE

Given that the key target physics issues are being addressed in the NNSA DP ICF program, the key scientific question for z-pinch IFE is:

“Can a repetitive pulsed power driver be connected directly to a fusion target with a recyclable transmission line to make an attractive inertial fusion energy power plant?”

Primary Issues for Z-Pinch IFE

For this Initiative, research is proposed to address the following primary issues for z-pinch IFE:

1. How feasible is the RTL concept?

2. What repetitive pulsed power drive technology could be used for z-pinch IFE?

3. Can the shock from the high-yield target (~3 GJ) be effectively mitigated to protect the chamber structural wall?

4. Can the full RTL cycle (fire RTL/z-pinch, remove RTL remnant, insert new RTL/z-pinch) be demonstrated on a small (PoP) scale?

5. What is the optimum high-yield target for 3 GJ, and what are the power flow requirements for this target?

6. What is the optimum power plant scenario for z-pinch IFE?

7. What is the path forward for z-pinch IFE?

Task 1. Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL)

  • Deliverables:

  • Develop integrated solutions to the RTL issues (RTL shape, materials, inductance, physics of power flow, chamber/interface issues, etc.) to validate the credibility and practicality of the RTL concept.

  • Design, build, and begin structural testing of RTLs to be used in 1 MA PoP experiments in subsequent FYs.

  • Design, cost, and schedule an RTL demonstration on Z/ZR.

  • Initiate a baseline RTL conceptual design for a 60 MA driver for a High Yield/ Engineering Test Facility (ETF).

Task 2. Repetitive Driver Development

  • Deliverables:

  • Assess the three approaches to repetitive pulsed power

  • for z-pinch IFE to validate LTD technology is the best

  • approach.

  • Form a standing working group to assess and develop

  • long-lifetime repetitive switches (ball-gaps in air, pressurized gas, magnetic switching, solid-state, etc.) for z-pinch IFE.

  • Develop an explicit conceptual power flow plan for a z-pinch IFE driver, using LTD technology coupled to an RTL to a z-pinch target. Include details of the RTL/MITL interface.

  • Initiate development of a 1 MA, 1 MV, 100 ns, 0.1 Hz driver using LTD technology as a PoP scale driver. Utilize and complement existing SNL work at Tomsk (Russia) on LTD technology.

  • Collaborate with the HIF-VNL on the possible use of LTD technology for HIF drivers.

Summary of Collaborating Institutions

Collaborating National Laboratories:


Collaborating Universities:

UCB, U.Wisc., UCD, UCLA, Georgia-Tech, U.

Missouri*, Texas Tech*, UNM, UNR*, Cornell*,


Collaborating Industry:

PSI, GA, Luxel, MRC, FPA

Collaborating Institutions in Russia:

Kurchatov (Moscow),

Institute for High Current Electronics (Tomsk)

Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow)

*Potential Collaborator

HIF and Z-Pinch Collaboration Areas

indirect-drive targets1 - e.g. P4 symmetry

thick liquid walls2

LTD driver technology

target fabrication

waste stream analysis

1see D. Callahan, talk M.I-06

2see W. Meier, talk F.I-05

Symmetry Control Developments:Radiation Shimming in Double-Ended Hohlraums

Roger Vesey, Guy Bennett, Debra Callahan*, Mike Cuneo, Max Tabak*, John Porter, R. Adams, P. Rambo, L. Ruggles, W. Simpson, and I. Smith


HIF hybrid target

Double z-pinch target on Z

We diagnose radiation asymmetry on Z with x-ray point-projection backlighting of an imploding capsule

Z-Beamlet Laser beam

Secondary hohlraum

X-ray film

Target foil

(e.g. Fe)

2 x 16 MA

40 TW/side

1 MJ

negative P4 flux

positive P4 flux

RAV6-2004 2

HIF target calculations with and without the shim layer show the improvement in symmetry*

Applied radiation source with -12% P4 in flux during foot pulse

Contours of imploded shell density near ignition time

Au shim (thickness exaggerated)

@ 19.3 g/cc

2.3 mm

CH 1.044 g/cc

2.01 mm

DT 0.25 g/cc

1.66 mm

DT gas 0.6 mg/cc

< 1 MJ

393 MJ

Fusion yield

  • Radiation shim layer placed directly on the capsule surface may work for high-convergence, high yield capsules (simple target fab)

  • 0.9 to 1.3x nominal shim thickness also produced nearly 1D yield

RAV 6-2004 9

*D. Callahan APS-DPP 2003

The first rad-shimmed capsule shots on Z in April, 2004 were successful in demonstrating the potential

Chose Z hohlraum which previously gave good data on –P2 and –P4

Capsule is 4.7-mm diameter, 30-mm thick CH shell with 2% Ge dopant for increased backlighter contrast at 6.7 keV

Gold shim layer designed (Callahan) to zero out both P2 and P4

Shim layer as deposited was somewhat thicker at equator and somewhat thinner near P4 extrema than designed

Unshimmed capsule:

Shim blowoff




P2 = - 6.0 %

P4 = - 6.9 %

P2 = + 15 %

P4 = - 3.0 %

design sim.

RAV 6-2004 10

Refinements for September, 2004 series on Z include: Improved shim quality for P4

Gold shim thickness vs. polar angle

Shim characterized by Abbas Nikroo (General Atomics)




  • Coating masks on flat vs. spherical surface resulted in different profiles

  • Target required coating masks for both P2 and P4 to be developed


Thickness (mm)









  • Sept series uses hohlraum designed for zero P2, resulting in thinner overall shim to remove the remaining P4 asymmetry

  • GA will redesign the coating mask to remove the thickness discrepancies

  • Target development is only pushed by actually having shots on the schedule

RAV 6-2004 12

Radiation shims appear promising for removing early time asymmetries in ICF and IFE capsules

  • Calculations show that shims can take out significant early time asymmetries

    • This may open up new possibilities such as smaller case-to-capsule ratio and different hohlraum geometries

  • Rad-shimmed capsules can now be coated, characterized, and mounted accurately to perform symmetry control experiments on Z

  • Demonstration of rad-shim performance will occur on Z and will impact target designs for:

    • Heavy-ion fusion

    • Z-pinch double-ended hohlraums

    • Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums

    • NIF hohlraums

RAV 6-2004 13

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