Castration of cattle
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Castration of Cattle. Animal Science Kristal Zimmers. Review…. http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/ansci/g02016.htm. Objectives. Define the term castration Identify the reasons for castrating cattle Indicate the best age to castrate cattle

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Castration of Cattle

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Castration of Cattle

Animal Science

Kristal Zimmers


Review…..

http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/ansci/g02016.htm


Objectives

  • Define the term castration

  • Identify the reasons for castrating cattle

  • Indicate the best age to castrate cattle

  • Describe the methods of castration in cattle

  • Identify the correct way to care for cattle after castration

  • Demonstrate the open wound method of castration


What is castration?

  • Definition: removing the testicles of a male animal

  • The functioning of the testicles is stopped by preventing the production of the male hormones so that the animal is unable to reproduce


Why do we castrate cattle?

  • To prevent them from mating after they reach puberty

  • Steers are usually more docile and easier to handle than bulls.

  • Steers are also not as rough on equipment and are easier to manage as new individuals added to feedlots.

  • Steers are finished earlier (fatten quicker) than bulls because fat deposition occurs at a faster rate than in bulls.


Why do we castrate cattle?

  • Steers produce a carcass with finer texture of lean and more marbling

  • Beef marketing system favors steer carcasses.

  • Steer carcasses can be marketed through a greater number of channels than bull carcasses.

  • Steers can be mixed with females in pasture or in lots without causing any management problems

  • Eliminates possibility of using inferior bulls


When to Castrate

  • Can be done at any age up to 12 months

  • Better to do when animal is very young (before 2 months of age)

  • Older calves tend to suffer a greater set back from the castration (which cost the producer money)

  • Easier to handle animals when they are young

  • Avoid extremes in weather. Too hot, too cold, or wet days should be avoided.


Sanitation

  • In all techniques the hands and castration instruments should be sanitized between each calf to prevent the spread and/or introduction of infection.


Methods of castration in cattle

  • Burdizzo

  • Rubber rings (elastrator)

  • Open wound castration (emasculator or knife)


Burdizzo

  • Spermatic cord and blood vessels leading to the testicles are cut

  • Testicles tend to stop functioning for a while and then stop functioning and degenerate

http://encyc.bmezine.com/?Burdizzo


Burdizzo cont’d.

  • Calves can be castrated when the spermatic cord can be clearly felt (from about 1 month onwards)

  • One spermatic cord should be clipped at a time

  • It is important to clip the two cords at different levels so that the scrotal sac will receive enough blood

  • Otherwise it will become gangrenous

  • Make sure that the spermatic cord is between the burdizzo blades


Advantages to Burdizzo castration

  • Bloodless

  • Infection or maggot infestation seldom occurs


Rubber rings (elastrator)

http://www.qcsupply.net/scalhookblad.html


Rubber rings (elastrator)

  • Rubber rings are put on (using elastrator) between birth and about 10 days of age

  • If applied later, the calf could get tetanus or a general infection

  • Animal also feels more pain and this decreases growth

  • Ensure that both testicles are in the scrotum before applying the ring


Disadvantages of rubber rings

  • This elastrator bands can break and castration may not occur.

  • Sometimes a testicle can be missed and be retained in the belly cavity, resulting in a stag.


Advantages of rubber rings

  • Calves are easy to handle and little labor is involved

  • Bloodless method


Open wound castration (emasculator or knife)

http://www.midstateswoolgrowers.com/acatalog


Open wound castration (emasculator or knife) cont’d.

  • Before the operation, the person doing the operation must wash their hands well, the instruments must be boiled and the scrotum disinfected thoroughly with iodine or another suitable disinfectant.

  • Apply antibiotic powder and fly repellant


Open wound castration (emasculator or knife) cont’d.

  • A sharp knife is used to remove the lower third of the scrotum

  • Each testicle is removed from its supporting membranes

  • Do not remove too little of the scrotum or it will not drain well

  • Emasculator has a cutting and crushing surface

  • Instrument is placed on the spermatic cord and the vascular supply closed so that the testes are removed


Open wound castration (emasculator or knife) cont’d

  • Excessive bleeding is prevented by the action on the vascular tissue

  • If a knife is used, the cords should not be cut “cleanly”.

  • Instrument is held at an angle and scraped over a distance of about 30 mm, until the cord breaks (prevents too much blood flow)

  • Better to use emasculator than knife


Which castration method to use

  • Determined by the preference of the operator, age and weight of the calf, and the time of year the procedure is being performed.


Aftercare

  • Turn calves in with their mothers in a clean grass pen.

  • Do not turn into muddy or filthy lots or lots around barns (where there is much danger of infection)

  • Watch cattle closely for about 10 days after castration


Aftercare

  • Beware of fly attacks and infection (especially with emasculator method)

  • Treat wounds with wound aerosol which discourages fly attacks

  • If swelling and pain are severe and/or if the animal develops a temperature, a suitable antibiotic should be injected


References

  • http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/ansci/g02016.htm

  • http://encyc.bmezine.com/?Burdizzo

  • http://www.qcsupply.net/scalhookblad.html

  • http://www.midstateswoolgrowers.com/acatalog

  • http://wwwnda.agric.za/docs/Beef-castrate.pdf


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