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Pragmatically-guided perceptual learning. Tanya Kraljic, Arty Samuel, Susan Brennan Adaptation Project mini-Conference, May 7, 2007. 1-Minute Background on Speech Perception Part 1: Perceptual constancy. Speaker. Listener. Speech sounds (phonemes) differ depending on: who is speaking

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Pragmatically guided perceptual learning

Pragmatically-guided perceptual learning

Tanya Kraljic, Arty Samuel, Susan Brennan

Adaptation Project mini-Conference, May 7, 2007


1-Minute Background on Speech Perception

Part 1: Perceptual constancy

Speaker

Listener

  • Speech sounds (phonemes) differ depending on:

    • who is speaking

    • what the immediate phonetic context is


And Yet…

Speaker

Listener

Perceptual constancy

  • Speech sounds (phonemes) differ depending on:

    • who is speaking

  • what the immediate phonetic context is


1-Minute Background on Speech Perception

Part 2: Solutions?

Speaker

Listener

1. Learn the acoustic invariants as children, then extract those and discard everything else as we’re listening

Problem: What acoustic invariants?


1-Minute Background on Speech Perception

Part 2: Solutions

Speaker

Listener

1. Learn the acoustic invariants as children, then extract those and discard everything else as we’re listening

Problem: What acoustic invariants?

2. Represent (learn) every variation that is encountered

Problem: memory (if every variant is stored separately), ‘catastrophic interference’ (if you keep changing the same representation)


Getting at the question how does the perceptual system decide what to learn
Getting at the Question: How does the perceptual system decide what to learn?

General idea in perception: Maybe the system tries to learn invariants of the distal objects that produce the stimuli (in this case, that would mean the speaker) and not of the stimuli themselves (in this case, the acoustic signal)

Our hypothesis: Maybe the system tries to learn those aspects of the signal that reflect characteristic properties of the speaker (and therefore are likely to remain stable across contexts and situations)


Getting at the question how does the perceptual system decide what to learn1
Getting at the Question: How does the perceptual system decide what to learn?

Specifically: How might it determine which variations are characteristic?

Our test: two kinds of information the system might use:

1. A ‘first impressions’ heuristic: In the absence of any other information, the properties that are present during first encounter are assumed to be representative and stable

2. Pragmatic cues that indicate that the variation is incidental (seeing that the speaker is talking with a pen in her mouth) can override the influence of primacy


What does perceptual learning look like 2 phase method
What does Perceptual learning look like? decide what to learn? 2-phase Method

1. Exposure Phase (Lexical Decision Task)

Purpose: To expose participants to a speaker who pronounces a

particular sound in an ambiguous way (e.g., /?sS/)

Method: The /?sS/ occurs in the context of words that cause the

sound to be perceived as one or the other phoneme (e.g. dino?aur

OR impa?ent).

Example: dino?aur OR impa?ent


What does perceptual learning look like 2 phase method1
What does Perceptual learning look like? decide what to learn? 2-phase Method

1. Exposure Phase (Lexical Decision Task)

Purpose: To expose participants to a speaker who pronounces a

particular sound in an ambiguous way (e.g., /?sS/)

Method: The /?sS/ occurs in the context of words that cause the

sound to be perceived as one or the other phoneme (e.g. dino?aur

OR impa?ent). * Listeners hear both ‘odd’ (dino?aur) and good versions of the (legacy) phonemes from the same speaker *

2. Test Phase (Category Identification)

Purpose: Tests whether perceptual learning has occurred

Method: Participants hear items from a continuum that ranges from

/s/ to (/S/), with several ambiguous points in between. They have to label each sound as S or SH.


Manipulation 2x2
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

*All manipulations are during the Exposure phase*

Modality (Audio Only, AudioVisual) X Pronunciation attribute (Characteristic, Incidental)

(really X another 2 - Phoneme: ?S or ?SH)


Manipulation 2x21
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

*All manipulations are during the Exposure phase*

Modality (Audio Only, AudioVisual) X Pronunciation attribute (Characteristic, Incidental)

(really X another 2 - Phoneme: ?S or ?SH)


Manipulation 2x22
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

*All manipulations are during the Exposure phase*

Modality (Audio Only, AudioVisual)X Pronunciation attribute (Characteristic, Incidental)

(really X another 2 - Phoneme: ?S or ?SH)


Manipulation 2x23
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

*All manipulations are during the Exposure phase*

Modality (Audio Only, AudioVisual) X Pronunciation attribute (Characteristic, Incidental)

(really X another 2 - Phoneme: ?S or ?SH)

Pronunciation attribute varies by modality:

AudioOnly modality = Order manipulation (to test ‘first impressions heuristic)

Order1st half2nd halfAttributionPrediction

Odd 1st dino?aur legacy Characteristic learning

Odd 2nd legacy dino?aur Incidental no learning


Results audio modality
Results: Audio Modality decide what to learn?

Odd First

Perceptual learning (F(1,62)=5.93, p=.018)

Odd Second

No Perceptual learning (F(1,62)=.29, p=.59

/s/

/?sS/

/S/

/s/

/?sS/

/S/


Manipulation 2x24
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

*All manipulations are during the Exposure phase*

Modality (Audio Only, AudioVisual) X Pronunciation attribute (Characteristic, Incidental)

(really X another 2 - Phoneme: ?S or ?SH)

Pronunciation attribute varies by modality:

AudioVisual modality = Pragmatic manipulation (can it override ‘first impressions’ heuristic?)

Pragmatic OrderAttributionPrediction

No pen in mouth* odd first Characteristic learning

Pen in mouth odd first Incidental no learning

*No pen in mouth condition is just an AV version of our Audio, Odd-first condition


Manipulation 2x25
Manipulation: 2X2 decide what to learn?

Example of manipulation:

No pen in mouth

Pen in mouth


Results audiovisual modality
Results: AudioVisual Modality decide what to learn?

No Pen in Mouth

Perceptual learning (F(1,68)=6.29, p=.015)

Pen in Mouth

No Perceptual learning (F(1,68)=.04, p>.05

/s/

/?sS/

/S/

/s/

/?sS/

/S/


Overall results conclusions
Overall results / Conclusions decide what to learn?

Results:Same acoustic signal is handled differently depending on whether it is assumed to be a characteristic pronunciation or an incidental (perhaps transient) one

Main effect of phoneme (SH vs. S), no interaction with modality, significant interaction with Pronunciation attribute.


Overall results conclusions1
Overall results / Conclusions decide what to learn?

Converging Evidence: Our work on idiolectal/dialectal STR shows learning for ?sS when it is speaker-driven, but not when it is contextually-driven

Conclusion: Perceptual learning is a powerful mechanism applied conservatively.

Pragmatic information plays an immediate role in guiding learning


Thank you

Thank you decide what to learn?


Design elaboration
Design Elaboration decide what to learn?

?SH

?S

Audio

AudioVisual

Audio

AudioVisual

odd 1st

odd 2nd

odd 1st

odd 2nd


Design elaboration1
Design Elaboration decide what to learn?

?SH

?S

Audio

AudioVisual

Audio

AudioVisual

No Pen

Pen

No Pen

Pen

odd 1st

odd 2nd

odd 1st

odd 2nd


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