Лексикология как наука о словарном составе языка. Цели и задачи курса. Слово как основная единица лексической системы. Основные способы номинации в языке.
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Word learningLEXICOLOGYgeneral special contrastive historical descriptive
1965 DIDRO and LAMBERT
Lenins theory of reflection
Reflection is the general property of matter
Reflection is selective
the synchronic (or descriptive) and the diachronic (or historical) approach
the Swiss philologist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 1913)
The term diachronic is composed of the Greek morphemes diameaning through and chronosmeaning time.
the diachronic approach in terms of special lexicology deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time.
The word is a dialectical unity of form and content
The system showing a word in all its word-forms is called its paradigm.
There are three main types of motivation:
The denotational aspect of lexical meaning is the part of lexical meaning which establishes correlation between the name and the object, phenomenon, process or characteristic feature of concrete reality (or thought as such), which is denoted by the given word.
Polysemy is a phenomenon which has an exceptional importance for the description of a language system and for the solution of practical tasks connected with an adequate understanding of the meaning of a word and its use.
A word may have several meanings. Then it is called a polysemantic word.
Words having only one meaning are called monosemantic.
Of special importance is the fact that polysemy exists only in language, not in speech.
The meaning of a word in speech is contextual.