Joint jaa eurocontrol task force on uavs
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Joint JAA/EUROCONTROL Task-Force on UAVs. Presentation at RST 03/4 Yves Morier JAA Regulation Director. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION. What are JAA and EASA What is EUROCONTROL? Why a joint Task-force? Assumptions The Terms of Reference of the Task-Force. Task-Force discussions items

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Joint JAA/EUROCONTROL Task-Force on UAVs

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Joint JAA/EUROCONTROL Task-Force on UAVs

Presentation at RST 03/4

Yves Morier

JAA Regulation Director


  • What are JAA and EASA

  • What is EUROCONTROL?

  • Why a joint Task-force?

  • Assumptions

  • The Terms of Reference of the Task-Force.

  • Task-Force discussions items

  • Organisation of the Task-Force

  • The first draft of the report and some selected issues

  • State of play/Next steps.

  • Conclusion

What are the JAA and EASA?

  • The JAA are a co-operative body forAviation Safety of 37 Member Authorities

    • Scope:

      • Design & manufacture; Operations and Maintenance of Aircraft.

      • Licensing of Flight Crew Personnel.

  • The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) operational on 28.09.03 is a EU Agency for 15 Member States

    • Scope:

      • Design & manufacture and Maintenance of Aircraft.


  • The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation: 31 Member States have signed the revised Convention .

  • Scope: ATM “gate to gate”

  • Future perspective: The 4 draft “SingleSky Regulations”.


  • Agreement for Co-operation (1996):

    • Provide a working basis to work together on CNS/ATM issues

    • Ensure that aircraft airworthiness and operational requirements are co-ordinated with airspace and ATM developments

Why a joint Task-Force ?

  • A joint Task-force is justified by the close relation between ATM issues and Aircraft issues in the case of UAVs.

  • The need for regulatory work was identified both within JAA and EUROCONTROL


  • Should allow for take-off and landing at “normal” airports and use of “normal” airspace.

  • Should accommodate UAVs of various size & with different levels of technology

  • Should accommodate various kinds of operations

Terms of Reference (1)

  • Develop a concept for UAV regulations:

    • Design & Manufacture and Maintenance of UAVs.

    • Operations of UAVs (in particular approval of operators)

    • Licensing of UAVs personnel.

    • Rules of the Air

    • Security issues

  • Concept ?

    • Outline and guiding principles for regulations

    • Not draft regulations !

Terms of Reference (2)

  • Objective of regulating UAVs:

    • To protect third parties, airborne and on the ground

    • Not address mission failure.

Terms of reference (6)

  • Deliverables:

    • A concept with its justification and recommendations for future work

  • Time scales:

    • Report originally planned for September 2003 however extension until February 2004 agreed.

  • More details on the Terms of Reference can be found in Attachment 1 to this presentation.

Categorisation of the Task-Force discussion items (1)

  • General

  • ICAO

  • Airworthiness and continued airworthiness

  • Environment

Categorisation of the Task-Force discussion items (2)

  • Operation; Maintenance and Licensing.

  • Air Traffic Management

  • Security

  • More details on these discussion items can be found in Attachment 2 to this presentation.

Organisation of the UAV Task-Force

  • Sub-group I: General, Safety and Security

  • Sub-group II: Airworthiness & Continued Airworthiness and Environment

  • Sub-group III: Operations, Maintenance and Licensing

  • ATM and ICAO to be handled within the EUROCONTROL system. A two-way dialogue exists with the UAV Task-Force

The first draft of the report and some selected issues

  • The Draft report consists of:

    • An executive summary: TBD

    • 7 Chapters

    • 15 annexes or Appendices (today)

  • A detailed outline can be found in Attachment 3 to this presentation

The first draft of the report and some selected issues

  • Definitions of:

    • UAV and UAV system

    • UAV Operator and UAV Commander

  • Safety Case and detailed codes:

    • Safety Case only?

    • Detailed codes only?

    • Safety Cases and detailed codes?

The first draft of the report and some selected issues

  • Two techniques to establish applicable design standard:

    • Kinetic energy of the Air Vehicle

    • Safety objectives: Ground victim criterion; kinetic energy; lethal surface; population density

  • Emergency Procedures and Flight Termination Systems:

State of Play/Next Steps

  • First draft has been circulated to the Task-Force, and for “advance reactions” to Central JAA and within EUROCONTROL.

  • Comments will be reviewed by the Task-Force “leadership” on November 20-21 resulting in a second draft.

  • Second draft reviewed by the Plenary Task Force on December 10-11 resulting in a third draft

State of Play/Next Steps

  • Third draft “formally” consulted between 19.12.03 and 30.01.04: JAA Sectorial Teams; EUROCONTROL; Others?

  • Review of Comments by the Task-Force “leadership”: two days in week 7 (9-13.02.04); agreement by the Plenary task-Force on the third day

  • Transmission of “Final” report mid-week 8 to JAA and EUROCONTROL management for approval (Late February-early March)

State of Play/Next Steps

  • Transmission of “Final” report mid-week 8 to JAA and EUROCONTROL management for approval (Late February-early March)

  • More details on the process can be found in Attachment 4 to this presentation


  • Broad scope of work.

  • A lot of enthusiasm led to good progress!

  • More efforts needed to truly achieve the concept for UAV Regulations

  • Final Report should be available in March 2004

  • Final Report will be used by EASA and/or JAA and EUROCONTROL as appropriate.

End of the presentation

  • Thank you very much for your attention!

  • Your comments/reactions are welcome!

Attachment 1

  • More details on the Terms of Reference

Terms of Reference (3)

  • Concept to be based on:

    • An identification of the various UAV technologies and an identification of possible use.

    • Consider the creation of categories

    • Identify lower mass limit for regulation at European level

    • Review existing material (Existing or draft standards; Research studies)

    • Consider the use of a total system approach

Terms of Reference (4)

  • Particular attention to:

    • Approval of operator issues

    • Legal issues in relation to ICAO Convention Article 8

    • Terminology issues

Terms of Reference (5)

  • Composition of the Task-Force:

    • In accordance with JAR-11(JAA Regulatory and Related Procedures): in addition to our classical list, organisations that can contribute have been invited.

    • In accordance with EUROCONTROLrequirements for Stakeholders involvement.

Attachment 2

  • More details on the discussions items included in the scope of the Task-Force


  • Scope issues:

    • Minimum weight

    • All categories of Airspace

    • Applicability to State UAVs

    • Need to focus ? and how ?

    • Persons on board ?

    • Categorisation


  • Overall objective of regulating UAVs

  • Safety Objectives; Safety Targets.

  • Interaction with EASA

  • Top-down integrated approach

    • Safety assessments


  • Terminology

    • Definition of UAV system:

      • ground component also ?

      • Levels of automation/Autonomy

      • Performance

    • Others:

      • Flight Termination System

      • Automated Vehicle Control Station


  • ICAO Convention Article 8 issue

  • Sense & Avoid/See & Avoid

  • Aircraft type Designators

  • Aircraft markings

Airworthiness & Continued Airworthiness

  • Definition of airworthiness for UAV

  • How to define Airworthiness requirements?

    • Kinetic energy criteria to select an existing code for a given project and then adapt

    • Using a lethality criteria create UAV codes based on JAR-VLA,-23,-25 but with different weight limits

    • Essential requirements

    • For specific cases, restricted certificates with operational limitations

    • Tailoring of existing codes;

    • Others?

Airworthiness & Continued Airworthiness

  • Certification or other approaches.

    • Self-Certification

    • Third party certification by accredited bodies

  • Credit for Flight Termination systems

  • Continuing airworthiness issues ?


  • Noise and emissions

    • Requirements

  • Frequencies for vehicle control

  • Public acceptance

Operations, Maintenance & Licensing

  • Operators organisation approval

  • Standard Operating Procedures

    • multiple operations by one pilot

  • Requirements competence

  • Licensing (Including medical)

  • Terrain Avoidance

  • Harmonisation with States UAV

  • Definitions:

    • UAV Commander

    • UAV pilot

Air Traffic Management

  • Communications architecture

  • Guiding principles for Air Traffic Management

  • Sense and Avoid issue

    • Equipment

    • Standard Operating Procedures

  • Relationships with EUROCONTROL


  • Established Security level

  • Retention of control by Operator

  • Deployment and self destruct

  • Interference with ATM

  • Control of sales*

  • Physical security of ground-stations*

* : not within aviation authorities remit

Attachment 3

  • Detailed outline of the draft report

Outline of the Draft report (1)

  • 0)Executive Summary: TBD

  • 1)Introductory Information:

    • 1.1 Current regulatory Environment

    • 1.2 Future UAV Applications

    • 1.3 Background to the Task-force

  • 2)General Safety and Security:

    • 2.1 System Approach to Regulatory Determination

    • 2.2 UAV System Principles and Terminology

    • 2.3 Safety: TBD

    • 2.4 Security

    • 2.5 Communications, Command and Control

Outline of the Draft report (2)

  • 3) Airworthiness, Continued Airworthiness and Environment:

    • 3.1 Scope/Introduction

    • 3.2 Definitions

    • 3.3 Involved organisations: TBD

    • 3.4 UAV systems components to be certified

    • 3.5 Survey of existing UAV regulatory material

    • 3.6 Type of regulation approach and certification levels

    • 3.7 Continued Airworthiness issues

    • 3.8 Environment

    • 3.9 Major Technical issues

    • 3.10 Conclusions and recommendations: TBD

Outline of the Draft report (3)

  • 4)Operations, Maintenance & Licensing:

    • 4.1 Methodology

    • 4.2 Topics:

      • Collision Avoidance

      • Equipment

      • Licences and Rating

      • Emergency procedures

      • Operator certification

      • Responsibilities and Hand-over

      • Others

Outline of the Draft report (4)

  • 5)Air Traffic Management:

    • 5.1 Current situation in ATM

    • 5.2 Summary on T-F identified ATM issues.

  • 6)Conclusions: TBD

  • 7)Recommendations: TBD

Outline of the Draft report (5)

  • Annexes:

    • UAV Task-Force Terms of Reference

    • List of Participants and Contributors

    • WG I; II; III Terms of Reference

    • Other organisations involved in Aviation regulations

    • Future UAV applications

Outline of the Draft report (6)

  • Appendices:

    • Principles for the approach to regulatory determination

    • Safety

    • UAV categorisation.

    • Light UAV systems.

    • Draft proposal to amend EASA regulation

    • Impact energy method for establishing design standards

    • UAV safety objectives method for establishing design standards

    • Identification of subjects (WGIII)

    • Discussion of subjects (WG III)

    • Licenses and ratings.

Attachment 4

  • Detailed process leading to final report

Task-Force Internal process

  • Confirm format of report and leaders on each Paragraph/ sub-paragraph of the first draft report: September 4. Done

  • Leaders to provide their input to Central JAA (CJAA): September 30. Done

  • First Draft report distributed to all task-force members: October 7. Done

  • Comments from all to leaders with copy to CJAA: November 7. Particular attention to interfaces issues

Task-Force Internal process

  • Meeting of Task-Force leadership to produce second draft report: 20-21 November

  • Second draft report sent to all Task Force members: November 28

  • Agreement on third draft report: Plenary Task-Force meeting: two days in week 50 (10-11 December)

Outside consultations before presentation to JAA & EUROCONTROL Management

  • First draft sent to Central JAA Divisions for advance reactions: October 7. One day Meeting Task- Force leadership? with them week 45 (7 November) to gather reactions.

  • Advance reactions in EUROCONTROL before November 14 for SRC; Others in EUROCONTROL?

  • Other advance reactions?

Outside consultations before presentation to JAA & EUROCONTROL Management

  • “Formal” outside consultation by JAA on third draft report Division/ Sectorial teams; EUROCONTROL system; Others?: December 19. (With copy to all task-force members)

  • Comments from “outside” consultation January 30, 2004.

  • Review of comments by Task Force leadership: two days in week 7 (February 9-13); agreement by the Plenary Task-Force on the third day

Presentation to JAA & EUROCONTROL Management

  • Transmission to JAAC mid-week 8 should allow to present the report to JAAC on 24.02.04

  • Transmission to EUROCONTROL SRC for approval mid-week 8 in view of approval late February/early March 2004

Attachment 5

  • Safety Case Considerations

Attachment 6

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