Cosmic ray research
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Cosmic Ray Research. Alex Souvannakhot & Sisi Srisutiva. Overview. This experiment aims to study the relationship between high energy particles and the radio waves they produce. The radio waves will provide a better picture of the primary particles. What are cosmic rays?.

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Cosmic Ray Research

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Cosmic Ray Research

Alex Souvannakhot & Sisi Srisutiva


Overview

This experiment aims to study the relationship between high energy particles and the radio waves they produce.

The radio waves will provide a better picture of the primary particles.


What are cosmic rays?

High energy particles from deep space are bombarding the atmosphere creating a shower of particles.

μ → e− + Ve + Vμ


Cosmic Ray Detectors

  • Consists of a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube

  • These connect to a data acquisition (DAQ) board which screens the data and records hits which can be read through a terminal emulator in Windows

  • Since our overall goal is to trigger the oscilloscope when the detector sees a coincidence and our trial of Hyperterminal expired, we bypassed the DAQ through the NIM setup

    • NIM units had to be adjusted to mimic DAQ board

      • .300V threshold


Calibration of CRDs

  • CRDs require plateauing to achieve optimal operating voltage

    • A signal must exceed the threshold value of .300V to be counted.

  • Plateauing adjusts the voltage to each PMT

    • Higher voltage means higher sensitivity to hits

    • Aiming to find the optimum voltage where the PMT is sensitive enough to pick up cosmic ray hits but not excess noise


To Plateau

  • Set a reference channel while all other channels are turned to the minimum voltage

  • Adjust the voltage of another channel until the graph of number of coincidences vs the channel voltage plateaus and begins to separate from the graph of the single hits

  • Repeat for other 3 channels


Displacement Study

  • To verify that our detectors were working and plateaued correctly, we used a displacement study.

  • Limits the angles of incoming cosmic rays that can hit the detectors


Displacement Study Results


Displacement Study Results


Nuclear Electronics

  • NIM- Nuclear Instrumentation Modules

  • BNC- Bayonet Neill- Concelman

  • LEMO-name of producer

  • NIM standard allows for flexibility of interchanging of instruments.

  • Process fast pulse- up to nanoseconds

  • CAMAC and VMEbus


NIM Rig

  • CRD

  • Quad Discriminator

  • Coincidence Unit

  • Oscilloscope

  • Antenna


Discriminator

  • Once the amplitude exceeds the threshold - 300 mV-, a standardized NIM pulse will be sent out.


Timing Diagram

  • The signal will experience delay as it passes through the cables and modules

  • The delay must be known to find the timestamp of the event(coincidence)


Cable Delay

  • We used a formula to predict the cable delay and verified with a scope.

  • ε = insulation dielectric constant


Oscilloscope and Antenna

  • The oscilloscope is programmed to collect data from the antenna when a pulse from the coincidence unit passes the threshold.


Results

Results will be coming shortly.

We will be testing to see if we can collect valid data in a farm on the outskirts of Lawrence.


Problems Encountered

  • Light leaks

  • Background noise picked up

  • Broken power sources

  • Lack of manuals of NIM

  • Programming the oscilloscope

  • Expiration of HyperTerminal trial


Improvements

  • Use a radioactive source, such as a 60Co source, to sweep the CRDs during calibration.

  • Create a better and sturdier detector holder.


Works Cited

Weinberg, Matthew. "Measurement of the Decoherence Curve of Cosmic Ray Muons Using Silicon Photomultipliers."

Thesis. University of Minnesota, 2008. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s08/Projects/S08_SiMultipliers/mweinberg.pdf>

Cable Delay Formula. Digital image. Digi Key. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

<http://www.digikey.com/Web%20Export/Supplier%20Content/GenCable_42/PDF/GC_CableDesignEquationsCoaxialCable.pdf?redirected=1>

Blanco, F. Educational Cosmic Ray Experiments with Geiger Counters. University of Catania, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.<http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701015.pdf>.

Cable Delay Formula. Digital image. Digi Key. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.<http://www.digikey.com/Web%20Export/Supplier%20Content/GenCable_42/PDF/GC_CableDesignEquationsCoaxialCable.pdf?redirected=1>.

Hong, Yung M. "MUON'S LIFE TIME MEASUREMENT AND HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS SIMULATION." Summer Undergraduate Research Exchange Program (SURE). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://www.phy.cuhk.edu.hk/sure/comments_2001/yung_paper.html>.

Karn, Peter. "The Kake Cosmic Ray Telescope." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s07/Projects/S07_CosmicRaysDistribution/index_files/page0003.htm>.

"Scintillator." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 July 2012. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scintillator>.

Weinberg, Matthew. "Measurement of the Decoherence Curve of Cosmic Ray Muons Using Silicon Photomultipliers." Thesis. University of Minnesota, 2008. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s08/Projects/S08_SiMultipliers/mweinberg.pdf>.

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QUESTIONS?

READ THE MANUAL!!!!11one


Acknowledgements

Without the help of the following, we would not achieve the same level of success:

  • Prof. Dave Besson

  • Kate Orr

  • Bob Peterson

  • Google


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