Cosmic ray research
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Cosmic Ray Research. Alex Souvannakhot & Sisi Srisutiva. Overview. This experiment aims to study the relationship between high energy particles and the radio waves they produce. The radio waves will provide a better picture of the primary particles. What are cosmic rays?.

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Cosmic Ray Research

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Cosmic ray research

Cosmic Ray Research

Alex Souvannakhot & Sisi Srisutiva


Overview

Overview

This experiment aims to study the relationship between high energy particles and the radio waves they produce.

The radio waves will provide a better picture of the primary particles.


What are cosmic rays

What are cosmic rays?

High energy particles from deep space are bombarding the atmosphere creating a shower of particles.

μ → e− + Ve + Vμ


Cosmic ray detectors

Cosmic Ray Detectors

  • Consists of a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube

  • These connect to a data acquisition (DAQ) board which screens the data and records hits which can be read through a terminal emulator in Windows

  • Since our overall goal is to trigger the oscilloscope when the detector sees a coincidence and our trial of Hyperterminal expired, we bypassed the DAQ through the NIM setup

    • NIM units had to be adjusted to mimic DAQ board

      • .300V threshold


Calibration of crds

Calibration of CRDs

  • CRDs require plateauing to achieve optimal operating voltage

    • A signal must exceed the threshold value of .300V to be counted.

  • Plateauing adjusts the voltage to each PMT

    • Higher voltage means higher sensitivity to hits

    • Aiming to find the optimum voltage where the PMT is sensitive enough to pick up cosmic ray hits but not excess noise


To plateau

To Plateau

  • Set a reference channel while all other channels are turned to the minimum voltage

  • Adjust the voltage of another channel until the graph of number of coincidences vs the channel voltage plateaus and begins to separate from the graph of the single hits

  • Repeat for other 3 channels


Displacement study

Displacement Study

  • To verify that our detectors were working and plateaued correctly, we used a displacement study.

  • Limits the angles of incoming cosmic rays that can hit the detectors


Displacement study results

Displacement Study Results


Displacement study results1

Displacement Study Results


Nuclear electronics

Nuclear Electronics

  • NIM- Nuclear Instrumentation Modules

  • BNC- Bayonet Neill- Concelman

  • LEMO-name of producer

  • NIM standard allows for flexibility of interchanging of instruments.

  • Process fast pulse- up to nanoseconds

  • CAMAC and VMEbus


Nim rig

NIM Rig

  • CRD

  • Quad Discriminator

  • Coincidence Unit

  • Oscilloscope

  • Antenna


Discriminator

Discriminator

  • Once the amplitude exceeds the threshold - 300 mV-, a standardized NIM pulse will be sent out.


Timing diagram

Timing Diagram

  • The signal will experience delay as it passes through the cables and modules

  • The delay must be known to find the timestamp of the event(coincidence)


Cable delay

Cable Delay

  • We used a formula to predict the cable delay and verified with a scope.

  • ε = insulation dielectric constant


Oscilloscope and antenna

Oscilloscope and Antenna

  • The oscilloscope is programmed to collect data from the antenna when a pulse from the coincidence unit passes the threshold.


Results

Results

Results will be coming shortly.

We will be testing to see if we can collect valid data in a farm on the outskirts of Lawrence.


Problems encountered

Problems Encountered

  • Light leaks

  • Background noise picked up

  • Broken power sources

  • Lack of manuals of NIM

  • Programming the oscilloscope

  • Expiration of HyperTerminal trial


Improvements

Improvements

  • Use a radioactive source, such as a 60Co source, to sweep the CRDs during calibration.

  • Create a better and sturdier detector holder.


Works cited

Works Cited

Weinberg, Matthew. "Measurement of the Decoherence Curve of Cosmic Ray Muons Using Silicon Photomultipliers."

Thesis. University of Minnesota, 2008. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s08/Projects/S08_SiMultipliers/mweinberg.pdf>

Cable Delay Formula. Digital image. Digi Key. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

<http://www.digikey.com/Web%20Export/Supplier%20Content/GenCable_42/PDF/GC_CableDesignEquationsCoaxialCable.pdf?redirected=1>

Blanco, F. Educational Cosmic Ray Experiments with Geiger Counters. University of Catania, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.<http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701015.pdf>.

Cable Delay Formula. Digital image. Digi Key. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.<http://www.digikey.com/Web%20Export/Supplier%20Content/GenCable_42/PDF/GC_CableDesignEquationsCoaxialCable.pdf?redirected=1>.

Hong, Yung M. "MUON'S LIFE TIME MEASUREMENT AND HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS SIMULATION." Summer Undergraduate Research Exchange Program (SURE). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://www.phy.cuhk.edu.hk/sure/comments_2001/yung_paper.html>.

Karn, Peter. "The Kake Cosmic Ray Telescope." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s07/Projects/S07_CosmicRaysDistribution/index_files/page0003.htm>.

"Scintillator." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 July 2012. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scintillator>.

Weinberg, Matthew. "Measurement of the Decoherence Curve of Cosmic Ray Muons Using Silicon Photomultipliers." Thesis. University of Minnesota, 2008. Web. 20 July 2012. <http://mxp.physics.umn.edu/s08/Projects/S08_SiMultipliers/mweinberg.pdf>.

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Questions

QUESTIONS?

READ THE MANUAL!!!!11one


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Without the help of the following, we would not achieve the same level of success:

  • Prof. Dave Besson

  • Kate Orr

  • Bob Peterson

  • Google


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