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Gastrointestinal System. Lecture 14. GI tract. Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Large intestine. Esophagus. Moves food via… Peristalsis “Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation”. Stomach. Mixes food with gastric juices  Chyme

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gi tract
GI tract
  • Mouth 
  • Pharynx 
  • Esophagus 
  • Stomach 
  • Small intestine 
  • Large intestine
esophagus
Esophagus
  • Moves food via…
  • Peristalsis
    • “Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation”
stomach
Stomach
  • Mixes food with gastric juices 
    • Chyme
  • Pyloric sphincter
    • Controls stomach emptying
  • Stomach empties completely within 4-6 hours after a meal
small intestine
Small intestine
  • 3 areas
    • Duodenum
      • Pancreas enzymes +
      • Bile
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  • Almost all food, water, vitamins and mineral are absorbed out of small intestines
accessory organs
Accessory organs
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Pancreas
liver gallbladder
Liver & Gallbladder
  • Produces bile
    • Greenish
    • Emulsifies fats
  • Extra bile is stored in the
    • Gallbladder
  • Bile flows into
    • duodenum via
    • bile duct
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Secretes enzymes for food digestion
nutrients
Nutrients
  • “Substances in food that are used by the body for growth, maintenance and repair”
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • Fats
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Chemical reactions that happen in the cells in order to sustain life
    • Catabolism
      • Breaking down structures for fuel
      • “Burning”
    • Anabolism
      • Combining simpler molecules to build more complex structures
      • “Building”
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Simple (sugar)
    • Sugar
    • Fruits
  • Complex (Starch)
    • Grains
    • Legumes
    • vegetables
carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Function
    • Convert to glucose 
    • ATP 
    • Fuel for the cells
proteins
Proteins
  • Composed of amino acids
  • Complete proteins
    • Milk
    • Meat
    • Fish
    • Poultry
  • Plant proteins
    • Legumes
    • Nuts
    • Grains
    • Cereals
protein
Protein
  • Function
    • Vital for body structure and function
    • Building and rebuilding of tissue
assessment
Assessment
  • Height & weight
  • Auscultate bowel sounds
    • All 4 quadrants
    • Normal q 5-15 sec
  • Palpate abdomen
diagnostic test
Diagnostic Test
  • Upper endoscopy
  • Exam esophagus, stomach, duodenum and upper jejunum.
  • Used to ID
    • Swallowing difficulty
    • Gastric reflux
    • Ulcers
upper endoscopy nrs care
Upper Endoscopy: Nrs Care
  • Fasting 8 hours
  • Conscious sedation
  • Remove dentures
  • Hold food until gag & cough reflex return
  • Warm saline gargles or throat lozenges for comfort
colonoscopy
Colonoscopy
  • Visual examination of large intestine
  • Used to
    • Screen for cancer
    • Remove polyps
colonoscopy nrs care
Colonoscopy: Nrs Care
  • Bowel prep
  • Conscious sedation
terms n v
Terms: N/V
  • Anorexia
    • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
    • Vague, unpleasant sensation of sickness or queasiness
  • Vomiting
    • Forceful expulsion of stomach contents
n v interventions
N&V interventions
  • Self limiting
  • Hold food initially
  • Clear liquids
  • Dry foods
  • Ginger
inserting an ngt
Inserting an NGT
  • Standard precaution
  • Position
    • High Fowler’s
  • Measure
    • Tip of nose
    • Earlobe
    • Distal sternum
enteral feeding
Enteral Feeding
  • HOB 30o
  • Check tube placement
    • 30 mL air
    • Check residual
  • Reinstill aspirated contents
    • > 100 mL GT
    • > 200 mL NGT
      • Notify MD
enteral feeding1
Enteral feeding
  • 30 mL water flush
    • a/
    • p/
stomatitis
Stomatitis
  • Inflammation of the oral mucosa
stomatitis nrs care
Stomatitis: Nrs Care
  • Oral care p/ eating
  • Avoid alcohol based mouthwashes
  • High calorie & protein diet
  • Soft, lukewarm or cool foods
  • Small frequent meals
  • Avoid spicy foods
gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  • Backwards movement of gastric content
  • GERD
  • S&S
    • Heartburn
    • Sore throat
    • hoarsness
gerd nrs care
GERD: Nrs Care
  • Avoid lying down (3 hr) p\ meals
  • HOB up 6 inches
  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco
  • Weight loss promotion
  • Avoid acidy foods
  • Administer meds
    • Histamin-2 receptor blockers
peptic ulcer disease pud
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
  • Break in the mucous lining of the stomach or duodenum where it comes in contact with gastric juice
pud s s
PUD – S&S
  • Pain
    • Burning, aching, unger-like
    • Relieved by eating
    • Heartburn
  • Elderly
    • No symptoms
pud complications
PUD - complications
  • Hemorrhage
    • Hematemesis
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Occult stool
    • Fatigue, weak
  • Obstruction
    • Feel full
    • N&V
  • Perforation
    • Severe pain
    • No BS
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