Gastrointestinal system
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Gastrointestinal System PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 43 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Gastrointestinal System. Lecture 14. GI tract. Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Large intestine. Esophagus. Moves food via… Peristalsis “Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation”. Stomach. Mixes food with gastric juices  Chyme

Download Presentation

Gastrointestinal System

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Gastrointestinal system

Gastrointestinal System

Lecture 14


Gi tract

GI tract

  • Mouth 

  • Pharynx 

  • Esophagus 

  • Stomach 

  • Small intestine 

  • Large intestine


Esophagus

Esophagus

  • Moves food via…

  • Peristalsis

    • “Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation”


Stomach

Stomach

  • Mixes food with gastric juices 

    • Chyme

  • Pyloric sphincter

    • Controls stomach emptying

  • Stomach empties completely within 4-6 hours after a meal


Small intestine

Small intestine

  • 3 areas

    • Duodenum

      • Pancreas enzymes +

      • Bile

    • Jejunum

    • Ileum

  • Almost all food, water, vitamins and mineral are absorbed out of small intestines


Large intestine

Large Intestine

  • AKA:

    • Colon


Accessory organs

Accessory organs

  • Liver

  • Gallbladder

  • Pancreas


Liver gallbladder

Liver & Gallbladder

  • Produces bile

    • Greenish

    • Emulsifies fats

  • Extra bile is stored in the

    • Gallbladder

  • Bile flows into

    • duodenum via

    • bile duct


Pancreas

Pancreas

  • Secretes enzymes for food digestion


Nutrients

Nutrients

  • “Substances in food that are used by the body for growth, maintenance and repair”

    • Carbohydrates

    • Protein

    • Fats

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals

    • Water


Metabolism

Metabolism

  • Chemical reactions that happen in the cells in order to sustain life

    • Catabolism

      • Breaking down structures for fuel

      • “Burning”

    • Anabolism

      • Combining simpler molecules to build more complex structures

      • “Building”


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Simple (sugar)

    • Sugar

    • Fruits

  • Complex (Starch)

    • Grains

    • Legumes

    • vegetables


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Function

    • Convert to glucose 

    • ATP 

    • Fuel for the cells


Proteins

Proteins

  • Composed of amino acids

  • Complete proteins

    • Milk

    • Meat

    • Fish

    • Poultry

  • Plant proteins

    • Legumes

    • Nuts

    • Grains

    • Cereals


Protein

Protein

  • Function

    • Vital for body structure and function

    • Building and rebuilding of tissue


Assessment

Assessment

  • Height & weight

  • Auscultate bowel sounds

    • All 4 quadrants

    • Normal q 5-15 sec

  • Palpate abdomen


Diagnostic test

Diagnostic Test

  • Upper endoscopy

  • Exam esophagus, stomach, duodenum and upper jejunum.

  • Used to ID

    • Swallowing difficulty

    • Gastric reflux

    • Ulcers


Upper endoscopy nrs care

Upper Endoscopy: Nrs Care

  • Fasting 8 hours

  • Conscious sedation

  • Remove dentures

  • Hold food until gag & cough reflex return

  • Warm saline gargles or throat lozenges for comfort


Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy

  • Visual examination of large intestine

  • Used to

    • Screen for cancer

    • Remove polyps


Colonoscopy nrs care

Colonoscopy: Nrs Care

  • Bowel prep

  • Conscious sedation


Terms n v

Terms: N/V

  • Anorexia

    • Loss of appetite

  • Nausea

    • Vague, unpleasant sensation of sickness or queasiness

  • Vomiting

    • Forceful expulsion of stomach contents


N v interventions

N&V interventions

  • Self limiting

  • Hold food initially

  • Clear liquids

  • Dry foods

  • Ginger


Inserting an ngt

Inserting an NGT

  • Standard precaution

  • Position

    • High Fowler’s

  • Measure

    • Tip of nose

    • Earlobe

    • Distal sternum


Enteral feeding

Enteral Feeding

  • HOB 30o

  • Check tube placement

    • 30 mL air

    • Check residual

  • Reinstill aspirated contents

    • > 100 mL GT

    • > 200 mL NGT

      • Notify MD


Enteral feeding1

Enteral feeding

  • 30 mL water flush

    • a/

    • p/


Stomatitis

Stomatitis

  • Inflammation of the oral mucosa


Stomatitis nrs care

Stomatitis: Nrs Care

  • Oral care p/ eating

  • Avoid alcohol based mouthwashes

  • High calorie & protein diet

  • Soft, lukewarm or cool foods

  • Small frequent meals

  • Avoid spicy foods


Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Backwards movement of gastric content

  • GERD

  • S&S

    • Heartburn

    • Sore throat

    • hoarsness


Gerd nrs care

GERD: Nrs Care

  • Avoid lying down (3 hr) p\ meals

  • HOB up 6 inches

  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco

  • Weight loss promotion

  • Avoid acidy foods

  • Administer meds

    • Histamin-2 receptor blockers


Peptic ulcer disease pud

Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)

  • Break in the mucous lining of the stomach or duodenum where it comes in contact with gastric juice


Pud s s

PUD – S&S

  • Pain

    • Burning, aching, unger-like

    • Relieved by eating

    • Heartburn

  • Elderly

    • No symptoms


Pud complications

PUD - complications

  • Hemorrhage

    • Hematemesis

    • Orthostatic hypotension

    • Occult stool

    • Fatigue, weak

  • Obstruction

    • Feel full

    • N&V

  • Perforation

    • Severe pain

    • No BS


  • Login