Emotions, Stress, and Health. Emotions. I. Measuring Emotions. A. Self-Reports: are fast and easy but may have questionable accuracy. B. Behavioral Observations: especially of facial expressions are useful. 1) Micro-expressions: brief and involuntary expressions of
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Emotions, Stress, and Health
I. Measuring Emotions
A. Self-Reports:are fast and easy but may have questionable
B. Behavioral Observations: especially of facial expressions
1) Micro-expressions:brief and involuntary expressions of
emotion (like fear and anger) can be very revealing.
C. Physiological Measures:use autonomic nervous activity
like perspiration and heart rate.
II. Theories of Emotions
A. James-Lange Theory:a person’s interpretation of a stimulus
evokes the autonomic changes directly. The psychological
experience of emotion is the individual’s perception of those
B. Schachter and Singer Theory:the intensity of the
physiological reaction determines only the intensity of the
emotion, not the type of emotion. It is a person’s cognitive
appraisal of the situation that determines the emotion that we
III. The Range of Emotions
A. Basic Emotions Should…
3) have a unique biological basis and distinct facial
B. Producing Facial Expressions...
1) Voluntary Smile:only utilizes the mouth muscles.
2) Duchenne Smile:involves the eye muscles along with
the mouth muscles.
C. Six Basic Emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, disgust,
anger, & surprise.
IV. Emotions and Decision-Making
A. Are emotions a good or bad influence on the decisions
1) Phineas Gage
2) Antonio Damasio’s patient “Elliot”
B. Emotional Intelligence:the ability to perceive, imagine and
understand emotions and to use that information in
1) Trolley Dilemma and Footbridge Dilemma
V. A Survey of Emotions
A. Positive Psychology:the study of features that enrich life,
such as hope, creativity, courage, spirituality, and responsibility.
B. Subjective Well-Being: an individual’s assessment of the
degree to which his or her life is pleasant, interesting, and
C. Keys to Happiness and Personal Fulfillment
2) Personal Growth
3) Contribution to the Community
D. Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: our tendency to judge
various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced.
E. Social Comparison Theory:we tend to feel happier when
we compare ourselves to people less fortunate than ourselves
and less happy when we compare ourselves to those more
fortunate than ourselves.
3) Despite the good press given to a cheerful outlook, it appears as if those who are sad or mildly depressed make better decisions than those who are happy and optimistic.
III. Fear and Anxiety
A. Learning Fear
B. Lie Detection
arousal such as blood
pressure, heart rate,
respiration and electrical
conduction of the skin in
reaction to a series of
2) Guilty-Knowledge Test:the interrogator asks about
information that would only be known to someone who had
been involved in the crime.
3) Sending Capacity Hypothesis: as we attempt to control
the parts of ourselves that we think would give away our lying
(ex. face), we forget to monitor other parts (ex. legs, feet).
IV. Anger and Violence
A. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: frustration caused
bya failure to obtain a desired or expected goal leads to
aggressive behavior. The potential for aggression depends on
being able to attribute the cause of the frustration to someone
C. Sexual Violence
D. Controlling Violence
Stress and Health
I. Health Psychology:examines how human behavior can improve health, prevent illness, and aid in the recovery from illness.
A. Stress:the pattern of responses an organism experiences
when stimuli disrupt its equilibrium or coping abilities.
B. Stressor:an internal or external event or stimulus that
C. Acute Stress:a temporary state of arousal with typically
clear onset and offset patterns.
D. Chronic Stress:a continuous state of arousal in which an
individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and
outer resources available for dealing with them.
E. The General Adaptation Syndrome…
1) Alarm:a brief period of high arousal of the sympathetic
nervous system, which readies the body for vigorous activity.
2) Resistance:if the stressor goes on for longer than a few
minutes, the body enters a phase of prolonged but moderate
3) Exhaustion:intense and long-lasting stress causes a
depletion of proteins in the immune system that can lead to
illness, fatigue, weakness, and possibly death.
F. Allostasis:the ability to adapt to stress.
G. Allostatic Overload:excessive stress resulting in psychological and / or physiological damage.
H. Occupational Burnout: emotional exhaustion and a sense that one can no longer accomplish anything related to one’s job.
A. Resources Relative
to Magnitude of Threat
Model of Stress and
level of stress occurs
when the stressful
situation is one that a
person regards as
his or her resources.
III. Handling Stress
A. Anticipatory Coping: efforts made in advance of a potentially
stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate the imbalance
between perceived demands and available resources.
B. Problem-Focused Coping (Monitoring): people attend
carefully to the stressful event and try to take effective action.
C. Emotion-Focused Coping (Blunting):people try to
weaken their emotional reaction to a stressful event through
relaxation, exercise, and / or distraction.
IV. Stress and Illness
A. Psychosomatic Illness:an illness that is influenced by
someone’s experiences, particularly stressful experiences, or
by his or her reactions to those experiences.
B. Procrastination and Stress…
Time of Semester
College students that procrastinate,
report significantly more symptoms
of physical illness by the end of a
semester than do those who do
C. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):a prolonged
period of anxiety and depression following the experience of
an extremely stressful event.
D. Type A Personality:describes a highly competitive,
impatient, hurried person who typically has an angry and
E. Type B Personality:designates those who are easygoing,
less hurried, and less hostile.
F. Type C Personality??? the quiet worrier.
V. Positive Effects of Stress
A. Distress vs. Eustress…
B. Posttraumatic Growth: positive psychological change in response to serious illnesses, accidents, natural disasters and other traumatic events.
C. Social Hindrance vs. Social Facilitation…
1) Social Hindrance: an individual’s tendency to perform
worse on a difficult task or a task that is not well learned
when in the presence of other people than when performing
that task alone.
2) Social Facilitation: an individual’s tendency to perform
better on an easy task or well learned task when in the
presence of other people than when performing that task