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Recent Progress in Gamma-ray Bursts:. S. R. Kulkarni California Institute of Technology. Image Credit: NASA E/PO, Sonoma State University, Aurore Simonnet. Long & Short. T. Piran, Hebrew U. P. A. Price, U. Hawaii J. Rich, ANU M. Rauch, Carnegie K. Roth, Gemini Obs M. Roth, Carnegie

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Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Recent Progress in Gamma-ray Bursts:

S. R. Kulkarni

California Institute of Technology

Image Credit: NASA E/PO, Sonoma State University, Aurore Simonnet


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Long & Short


The gang and collaborators

T. Piran, Hebrew U.

P. A. Price, U. Hawaii

J. Rich, ANU

M. Rauch, Carnegie

K. Roth, Gemini Obs

M. Roth, Carnegie

D. J. Sand, Caltech

B. P. Schmidt, ANU

S. Shectman, Carnegie

A. M. Soderberg, Caltech

M. Takada, Tohuku U.

T. Totani, Kyoto U.

W. T. Vestrand, LANL

D. Watson, U. Copenhagen

R. White, LANL

P. Wozniak, LANL

J. Wren, LANL

G. Kosugi, NAOJ

W. Krzeminski, Carnegie

S. R. Kulkarni, Caltech

P. Kumar, U. Texas

D. C. Leonard, Caltech

B. L. Lee, U. Toronto

A. MacFadyen, IAS

P. J. McCarthy, Carnegie

D. -S. Moon, Caltech

D. C. Murphy, Carnegie

E. Nakar, Caltech

H. S. Park, LLNL

B. Penprase, Pomona C.

S. E. Persson, Carnegie

B. A. Peterson, ANU

M. M. Phillips, Carnegie

The Gang and collaborators

K. Aoki, NAOJ

E. Berger, Carnegie

P. B. Cameron, Caltech

R. A. Chevalier, U. Virginia

S. B. Cenko, Caltech

L. L. Cowie, U. Hawaii

A. Dey, NOAO

S. Evans, LANL

D. B. Fox, Penn S./Caltech

D. A. Frail, NRAO

H. Furusawa, TIT

A. Gal-Yam, Caltech

F. A. Harrison, Caltech

K. C. Hurley, UC Berkeley

M. M. Kasliwal, Caltech

N. Kawai, TIT


Collaborators

T. Piran, Hebrew U.

P. A. Price, U. Hawaii

J. Rich, ANU

M. Rauch, Carnegie

K. Roth, Gemini Obs

M. Roth, Carnegie

D. J. Sand, Caltech

B. P. Schmidt, ANU

S. Shectman, Carnegie

A. M. Soderberg, Caltech

M. Takada, Tohuku U.

T. Totani, Kyoto U.

W. T. Vestrand, LANL

D. Watson, U. Copenhagen

R. White, LANL

P. Wozniak, LANL

J. Wren, LANL

G. Kosugi, NAOJ

W. Krzeminski, Carnegie

S. R. Kulkarni, Caltech

P. Kumar, U. Texas

D. C. Leonard, Caltech

B. L. Lee, U. Toronto

A. MacFadyen, IAS

P. J. McCarthy, Carnegie

D. -S. Moon, Caltech

D. C. Murphy, Carnegie

E. Nakar, Caltech

H. S. Park, LLNL

B. Penprase, Pomona C.

S. E. Persson, Carnegie

B. A. Peterson, ANU

M. M. Phillips, Carnegie

Collaborators

K. Aoki, NAOJ

E. Berger, Carnegie

P. B. Cameron, Caltech

R. A. Chevalier, U. Virginia

S. B. Cenko, Caltech

L. L. Cowie, U. Hawaii

A. Dey, NOAO

S. Evans, LANL

D. B. Fox, Penn S./Caltech

D. A. Frail, NRAO

H. Furusawa, TIT

A. Gal-Yam, Caltech

F. A. Harrison, Caltech

K. C. Hurley, UC Berkeley

M. M. Kasliwal, Caltech

N. Kawai, TIT


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Long Duration Bursts:

Kulkarni et al.

Bloom et al.

Frail et al.

Berger et al.

Soderberg etal

Collapsar Model: Woosley, Heger, MacFadyen


Sn 1998bw grb 980425

SN 1998bw/GRB 980425

E~1048 erg (isotropic)

Galama et al. 1998, Kulkarni et al. 1998


Collapsar the movie

Collapsar: The Movie

A Hollywood-Bollywood Production

From Bogus Enterprise,

A Division of General Propaganda


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

With physics and lots of hardwork (MacFadyen)


A new family of cosmic explosions

A New Family of Cosmic Explosions:

Soderberg


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Keck Laser Guide Star AO


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Progenitors of Ibc SNe: A Hot Result


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Palomar 60-inch: A second life


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Exploitation of GRBs has already begun

GRB 050904: z=6.2

Observations at 3 hours (P60, optical; SOAR, NIR)

Berger et al.

Reichart et al. 2005


Two classes of grbs

Two classes of GRBs

Short - Hard

Long - Soft


Summarizing four papers

Summarizing Four Papers

  • Fox et al. “The afterglow of GRB 050709 and the nature of the short-hard γ-ray bursts”, Nature, October 6, 2005

  • Berger et al. “A merger origin for short γ-ray bursts inferred from the afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 050724”, Nature, November, 2005

  • Kulkarni “Modeling Macronovae”

  • Kulkarni et al. “Constraints on supernova-like emission associated with the short-hard gamma-ray burst 050509b


Toward the shb progenitor redux

Toward the SHB Progenitor: Redux

  • How far away are they?

  • How much energy do they release?

    • is the energy release isotropic or collimated?

    • are the central engines long or short-lived?

    • Is there associated non-relativistic ejecta?

  • What are the progenitors?

    • Clue (macro) = host galaxy + offset

    • Clue (micro) = circumburst environment

The key to answering these questions has been the precise

positions enabled by the discovery of long-lived afterglows.


Grb 050509b swift detection

BAT: very faint GRB

XRT: T+62 s detects 11 photons(!)

No optical, no radio. very faint limits

Low energy event and/or low density medium?

Giant elliptical galaxy in cluster. z=0.22 Host?

GRB 050509B: Swift Detection

Gehrels et al. 2005

T90=40 ms


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

NSC J123610+285901

z=0.225

Bloom et al. 2005


Hst imaging no supernova

HST Imaging: No Supernova

48 sources in XRT error circle

Error radius = 9.3 arcsec

4 HST Epochs

May 14 to June 10

Giant elliptical Bloom et al

L=1.5L*

SFR<0.1 M yr-1

Kulkarni et al. 2005


Grb 050709 hete detection

A Hard spike, 84 keV

A Soft (PL) bump (alpha=-2)

Roughly equal energy in each component

GRB 050709: HETE Detection

Villasenor et al. 2005

T90=70 ms


Grb 050709 accurate localization

GRB 050709: Accurate Localization

GRB

SXC

c

Fox et al. 2005


Hst imaging search for supernova explosion

HST imaging & search for supernova explosion

Fox et al. 2005


Grb 050709 panchromatic studies

GRB 050709: Panchromatic Studies

  • X-ray

    • source “flares” for initial 6 ks of 18 ks in second epoch

      • Long-lived central engine?

    • early and late flux do not fit

  • Optical

    • inconsistent with simple PL decay (slope=-1.3 --> -2.8)

    • “jet” break at T+10 d

    • SN limits MR>-12 mag

  • Radio

    • violate simple AG model

Fox et al. 2005; Hjorth et al. 2005


Grb 050724 swift detection

Brightest Swift SHB

Hard spike/soft bump

X-ray, optical and radio afterglow detected

GRB 050724: Swift Detection

15-150 keV

250 ms

T90=3 s

Barthelmy al. 2005

T90=40 ms

15-25 keV

100 s


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Barthelmy al. 2005


Grb 050724 swift

GRB 050724: Swift

Berger et al. 2005


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Red elliptical

z=0.258

L=1.6 L*

SFR<0.03 M yr-1

Kulkarni & Cameron


Toward the shb progenitor

Toward the SHB Progenitor

  • How far away are they?

    • At least some short bursts are z ~ 0.2

  • How much energy do they release?

    • About 1049 to 1050 erg

    • Evidence for ``jets’’

  • Is there an associated supernova explosion?

    • Supernova, if any, are faint (Mv > -13)

  • What are they?

    • Both elliptical and star-forming host galaxies


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Comparison to Long Duratrion Gamma-ray Bursts


Empirical connection to ia supernovae

Empirical Connection to Ia Supernovae

Nakar & Gal-Yam


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

The Score Card

Energy Density Host Offset No SNe

Magnetar

0

0

1

0

1

Collapsar

1

1

0

0

0

Binary Coalescence

1

1

1

1

1


Holy smokes he is dead

Holy smokes, he is dead?!!

Ph: Glendinning


Coalescence of neutron stars shibata

Coalescence of Neutron Stars (Shibata)


Black hole neutron star rupert janka

Black Hole-Neutron Star (Rupert, Janka)


Macronova

Macronova

  • Is there a sub-relativistic explosion accompanying short hard bursts? Li & Paczynski 1998

  • If so, (observationally)

    > Nova

    < Supernova

    => “Mini-supernova” or “Macronova”

    Kulkarni


Macronova model

Macronova Model

  • Parameters: Mejecta & v=c

  • Composition

    • Free Neutrons

    • Radioactive Nickel

    • Neutron Rich Material (non-radioactive)

  • Injection of energy essential for macronova to shine and be detectable


Nickel decay

Nickel Decay


R process and s process elements

r-process and s-process elements


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Comparison to Data (GRB 050509b)

=0.5

=0.05


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

The Macronova as a Reprocessor


Quasars a historical analogy ii

Quasars: A Historical Analogy, II

  • Scintillation: Interplanetary Scintillation showed that quasars were compact

  • The Central Engine: After three decades we have a working model involving black holes

  • The Pesky Jets: Questions remain

    • FRI and FRII

    • What is the difference between radio quiet and radio loud AGN?

  • Unification: The desire to unify various classes of quasars drove much of quasar research.


Quasars a historical analogy i

Quasars: A Historical Analogy, I

  • Astonished & Impressed: The immense power and energy of quasars resulting from Schmidt’s discovery of redshift.

  • Amused and Educated: Relativistic effects such as super-luminal motion were anticipated by Rees.

  • Ruthless Exploitation: Ask not why quasars quase but simply use them as light beacons to study the IGM.


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

The Macronova as a reprocessor

  • Long lived central soure (e.g. magnetar)

  • Long lived accretion disk

  • There are already indications of tremendous late time activity.


Shbs observational milestones

SHBs Observational Milestones

  • 050509B

    • rapid arcsecond (+/-9.3”) localization of X-ray emission (AG?)

    • tentative host is elliptical galaxy in merging cluster (z=0.225)

    • macronova and SNe limits

  • 050709

    • sub-arcsecond position of X-ray afterglow

    • unambiguous identification of spiral host galaxy & redshift (z=0.16)

    • discovery of optical afterglow

    • evidence that outflows are jet-like

    • evidence that central engines remain active for days to weeks

  • 050724

    • discovery of first radio afterglow

    • unambiguous identification of red elliptical host galaxy (z=0.257)


Coalescence black hole shibata

Coalescence --> Black Hole (Shibata)


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Gal Yam


Possible shb progenitors

Possible SHB Progenitors

  • Magnetar

    • Highly magnetized young neutron star (1014-1015 G)

    • Crustal breaking and magnetic reconnection = hyper-flares

    • short (0.2 s) hard pulse and long (300 s), soft pulse

    • Dominant timescale is Alfven velocity in NS

  • Collapsar

    • Massive star core collapses to black hole + short-lived accretion disk

    • Nicely explains long-soft bursts

    • Dominant timescale is set by jet propagation in CO core (20 s)

    • Shorter timescales = collimated jet that wanders due to instabilities

  • Binary Coalescence

    • Merging compact remnants (WD, NS, & BH)

    • Hypercritical accretion onto a newly formed BH

    • Dominant timescale is set by accretion disk viscosity


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Widely expected based on burst brightness distribution

<V/Vmax>=0.39+/0.02

luminosity similar to long bursts but duration 100x less

predicts faint AG

Future z distribution will constrain merger timescale

Tavnir et al (astro-ph) suggests 5-25% SHB are at d<100 kpc

Good news for GW detectors like LIGO

Guetta & Piran (2005)

SF + delay

Taken from K.Thorne NSF Review talk


Grb host offset distributions

Offsets are notoriously difficult to calculate.

Binary synthesis models

Galactic population of binaries

Depends on…

Merger times (0.1-100 Gyrs)

Proper motions (50-500 km/s)

Host galaxy potential

Binary evolution theory

Future offsets can help constrain all of above

GRB/Host Offset Distributions

NS/NS

Collapsar

Fryer, Woosley & Hartmann 1999


Grb 050709 optical afterglow

GRB 050709: Optical Afterglow

1.5m Danish Telescope, La Silla

Price et al. 2005 and Hjorth et al 2005

Decays as t-1.3

T+1.42 d

T+2.39 d

ΔT


Grb 050724 gemini spectra

GRB 050724: Gemini Spectra

z=0.257

Prochaska et al. ; Berger et al. 2005


Recent progress in gamma ray bursts

Palomar 60-inch: Now a robotic telescope


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