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Aerospace Education. Module 4 Rockets. Contents. Chapter 1 – History of Rockets Chapter 2 – Rocket Principles Chapter 3 – Rocket Systems and Controls Quiz Credits. Chapter 1. “History of Rockets”. Greek Contribution.

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Aerospace education

Aerospace Education

Module 4

Rockets


Contents

Contents

  • Chapter 1 – History of Rockets

  • Chapter 2 – Rocket Principles

  • Chapter 3 – Rocket Systems and Controls

  • Quiz

  • Credits


Chapter 1

Chapter 1

“History of Rockets”


Greek contribution

Greek Contribution

Rocketry began around 400 BCE when Archytas built a flying wooden pigeon, suspended on a wire and propelled by steam. 300 years later, Hero developed the first rocket engine. The “Hero Engine” was propelled by steam.

The Hero engine consisted of a sphere on top of a pot of water. When the water was heated and turned into steam, the steam would travel through pipes into the sphere. Two L-Shaped tubes on either side of the sphere released the steam, creating thrust.

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Greek contribution1

Greek Contribution


Chinese contribution

Chinese Contribution

By the first century, the Chinese had developed an early form of gunpowder and had began using it in fireworks for religious and festive celebrations. They then began experimenting with it for warfare.

When the Chinese went to war with the Mongols in 1232, the Chinese used these early rockets as arrows of flying fire. The stick attached to the rocket acted as a crude guidance system. It was from this point that the use of rockets began to spread.

Contents


Chinese contribution1

Chinese Contribution


Early european contribution

Early European Contribution

Rockets continued to develop through the 13th and 15th centuries. Roger Bacon developed better forms of gunpowder in England while Jean Froissart improved rocket accuracy by launching them from a tube. Towards the end of the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton developed his laws of motion.

As time went on, German and Russian rocket experimenters began experimenting with very powerful rockets, some of which were so powerful they bored holes in the ground before lift-off.

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British contribution

British Contribution

At the end of the 18th century, Col. William Congreve, a British artillery expert set out to design rockets for military purposes. His rockets reached a range of 3,000 yds. and were very successful on the battlefield due to the sheer numbers that could be fired.

Congreve’s rockets were the type of rockets which inspired Francis Scott Key’s “The Star Spangled Banner” during the battle of Fort McHenry during the war of 1812.

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British contribution1

British Contribution


British contribution2

British Contribution

After Congreve’s contributions, rocket accuracy had still not really improved any. Englishman William Hale developed a technique called spin stabilization. This technique uses escaping rocket exhaust which strike small vanes on the bottom of the rocket to create a spin while in flight, much like a bullet.

Many rockets still use this technique today for stabilization.

Contents


American contribution

American Contribution

During the early 20th century, American physics professor Dr. Robert H. Goddard conducted many practical experiments with rockets which led to major breakthroughs in rocket development. Goddard began with solid fuel rockets and then determined that liquid fuel rockets better propel a rocket.

Goddard achieved the first flight of a liquid propelled rocket in 1926, fueled with gasoline and oxygen. Goddard eventually developed his rockets further with a gyroscope guidance system, payload compartment, and parachute recovery system. He also concluded that multistage rockets were necessary to achieve higher altitudes.

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American contribution1

American Contribution


American contribution2

American Contribution

After WWII, the United States Army contracted many scientists from around the world to work in the US rocket program in order to prevent the Soviet Union from contracting them. Wernher Von Braun became the head of the new US rocket program, and formerly headed the Nazi V-2 rocket program.

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The space race

The Space Race

Both the US and Soviet Union recognized the strategic value of rocketry after WWII and began a wide variety of experimental programs. The US began a program of high altitude sounding rockets and later developed several medium- and long-range ICBMs such as the Redstone, Atlas, and Titan missiles.

These missiles would later launch many satellites and astronauts into orbit and would become the workhorses of the space program.

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The space race1

The Space Race


The space race2

The Space Race

On October 4th, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite into orbit, Sputnik I. This achievement unofficially officially began the space race between the United States and Soviet Union.

The United States launched it’s own artificial satellite on January 31st, 1958, Explorer I. In October of 1958, the US formally established NASA, with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all of humanity.

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The space race3

The Space Race

Sputnik I

Explorer I


The space race4

The Space Race

In April of 1961, the Soviet Union achieved the launching of the first man to orbit Earth, Yuri Gagarin. Less than a month later, the US launched Alan Shepherd aboard the Mercury capsule, Freedom 7, to become the first American in space.

20 days after the launch of Alan Shepherd into space, although he wasn’t even able to orbit, President John F. Kennedy established the goal of putting a man on the Moon before the end of the decade. In February of 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth aboard Friendship 7, another Mercury capsule.

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The space race5

The Space Race

Freedom 7

Friendship 7


The space race6

The Space Race

After the Mercury missions were concluded and NASA’s extensive unmanned program in support of the lunar landing were carried out, the Gemini missions began. The Gemini missions were designed to carry two crew members, and were launched by the largest available vehicle, the Titan II.

Gemini was aimed at increasing our experience in space in preparation for the US lunar landing. Gemini also carried out the first rendezvous and docking in space.

Contents


The space race7

The Space Race


The space race8

The Space Race

After the Gemini missions concluded, Apollo began. If the US was to send men to the Moon and return them safely, NASA was going to need far larger launch vehicles than they currently had available. This prompted the development of the Saturn launch vehicles. First came the Saturn I and Saturn IB rockets, which were large, two-stage liquid rockets which were assembled using other rockets.

In October of 1968 NASA launched the first manned Apollo mission on a Saturn IB rocket, Apollo 7. Apollo 7 launched men into orbit around the Moon, but did not land. Finally, on July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the moon and Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon.

Contents


The space race9

The Space Race


The space race10

The Space Race

Following the Apollo project, NASA undertook the Skylab project, the US’ first space station. Skylab was launched in May of 1973 aboard a Saturn IB launch vehicle and had 3 separate missions aboard it between 1973 and 1974. The last mission was the longest, lasting 84 days.


The space race11

The Space Race

After Skylab, the United States began to focus on a reusable launch system, the space shuttle. The shuttle uses 2 solid-fuel rocket boosters and has three main engines on the orbiter to launch. The reusable boosters release after about 2 minutes of flight.

Contents


Chapter 2

Chapter 2

“Rocket Principles”


Principles of rocketry

Principles of Rocketry

By the most basic definition, a rocket is a chamber with pressurized gas inside it. There is a small opening letting the gas out, causing thrust which propels the rocket.

Contents


Newton s laws of motion

Newton’s Laws of Motion

Sir Isaac Newton, as learned in previous modules, stated three laws that govern motion within our universe. It is the usage of these laws that enable engineers to design more effective rockets today.

Contents


Newton s first law of motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s first law of motion basically states that if something isn’t moving, it will continue to not move unless something moves it, or, if something is moving, it will continue moving at that speed forever unless something causes it to change speeds or stop moving.

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Newton s second law of motion

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Newton’s second law basically states that something that is sped up, speeds up at a rate which is proportional to the mass of the object and the amount of force acting upon it. The mathematic equation looks like this: F = MA. This means that the force necessary to cause a certain amount of acceleration is equal to the mass of the object, multiplied by the acceleration you want.

Contents


Newton s third law of motion

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Newton’s third law of motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that if a rocket’s engine fires, the rocket will be pushed upwards because the engine is creating downward thrust.

Contents


Chapter 3

Chapter 3

“Rocket Systems and Controls”


Rocket systems

Rocket Systems

Modern rockets are comprised of 4 major systems: the airframe, the guidance system, the control system, and the propulsion system.


The airframe

The Airframe

The airframe is the outer shell of the rocket. Ideally, they are lightweight and structurally sound. Airframes must endure a tremendous amount of stress so they must be made of light, but very strong materials, such as titanium and aluminum.

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The guidance system

The Guidance System

Guidance systems can be called the “brain” of the rocket as it is responsible for getting the rocket to it’s destination. When compared to other rocket components, guidance systems are very small. Guidance systems are usually computers which ensure the rocket stays on the right trajectory to reach it’s target.

Contents


The control system

The Control System

The control systems works with the guidance systems to ensure the rocket stays on the correct trajectory, the control system however, does the actual work of changing the direction the rocket is flying. There are 4 main types of control systems. In essence, the control system is what steers the rocket while it flies.

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The propulsion system

The Propulsion System

The propulsion system is the largest component, excluding the airframe, to most rockets. The propulsion system is what creates the thrust necessary to push a rocket through the air. There are two types of propulsion systems, solid fuel, and liquid fuel. Rockets today are mostly liquid fueled rockets, although much more complex than solid fuel rockets.

Contents


Aerospace education

Quiz


Question 1

Question 1

Who’s laws laid down the scientific foundation for modern rocketry?

A) John Glenn

B) Roger Bacon

C) Sir Isaac Newton

D) Francis Scott Key


Correct

Correct!

The scientist who laid down the laws of motion which form the foundation of modern rocketry was Sir Isaac Newton

Next Question


Incorrect

Incorrect

The scientist who laid down the laws of motion that form the foundation for modern rocketry was Sir Isaac Newton. His Laws of Motion govern the movement of rockets in our universe

Next Question


Question 2

Question 2

Who was the first American to walk on the surface of the Moon?

A) Chuck Yeager

B) Colonel Congreve

C)Wernher Von Braun

D) Neil Armstrong


Correct1

Correct!

The first American, and human being, to walk on the surface of the Moon was Neil Armstrong.

Next Question


Incorrect1

Incorrect

The first American to walk upon the surface of the Moon was Neil Armstrong.

Next Question


Question 3

Question 3

Who is known as the father of modern rocketry?

A) Dr. Robert Goddard

B) Francis Scott Key

C)Apollo I

D) Sir Isaac Newton


Correct2

Correct!

Dr. Robert Goddard is known as the father of modern rocketry due to his pioneering research in rocketry, as well as his invention of liquid propelled rockets.

Next Question


Incorrect2

Incorrect

Dr. Robert Goddard is known as the father of modern rocketry due to his pioneering work in the field of rocketry, as well as his invention of the liquid propelled rocket.

Next Question


Question 4

Question 4

A body at rest remaining at rest is part of Newton’s __ Law of Motion.

A) 3rd

B) 2nd

C) 1st

D) 6th


Correct3

Correct!

A body at rest remaining at rest is part of Newton’s First Law of Motion

Next Question


Incorrect3

Incorrect

A body at rest remaining at rest is part of Newton’s First Law of Motion

Next Question


Question 5

Question 5

Which is Newton’s Laws of Motion is this?

“The rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of the force”

A) 1st

B) 3rd

C) 5th

D) 2nd


Correct4

Correct!

“The rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of the force,” is Newton’s second Law of Motion

Next Question


Incorrect4

Incorrect

“The rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of the force,” is Newton’s second Law of Motion

Next Question


Question 6

Question 6

A rocket being propelled upwards because of a rocket engine creating downward thrust is an example of which of Newton’s Laws of Motion?

A) 2nd

B) 3rd

C) 5th

D) 4th


Correct5

Correct!

A rocket being propelled upwards because of a rocket engine creating downward thrust is an example of Newton’s third Law of Motion

Next Question


Incorrect5

Incorrect

A rocket being propelled upwards because of a rocket engine creating downward thrust is an example of Newton’s third Law of Motion

Next Question


Question 7

Question 7

Which major rocket system creates the outer shell of the rocket?

A) Payload System

B) Airframe

C) Combustion System

D) Guidance System


Correct6

Correct!

The airframe creates the outer shell of a rocket

Next Question


Incorrect6

Incorrect

The airframe creates the outer shell of a rocket

Next Question


Question 8

Question 8

Which rocket system provides the thrust needed for the rocket to launch?

A) Airframe

B) Guidance System

C) Propulsion System

D) Control System


Correct7

Correct!

The propulsion system provides the thrust necessary to launch a rocket

Next Question


Incorrect7

Incorrect

The propulsion system provides the thrust necessary to launch a rocket

Next Question


Question 9

Question 9

Which rocket system ‘steers’ the rocket through the air?

A) Control System

B) Guidance System

C) Propulsion System

D) Payload System


Correct8

Correct!

The control system is what steers the rocket through the air, while the guidance system tells the control system what to do

Next Question


Incorrect8

Incorrect

The control system is what steers the rocket through the air, while the guidance system tells the control system what to do

Next Question


Question 10

Question 10

What was the name of America’s first space station?

A)Mir

B)Apollo XI

C)Gemini

D)Skylab


Correct9

Correct!

America’s first space station was known as Skylab I

Contents


Incorrect9

Incorrect

America’s first space station was known as Skylab I

Contents


Credits

Credits

  • Created by Cadet Ryan Stanley

  • Based on Aerospace Dimensions Module 4: Rockets

Contents


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