Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero indu...
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Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry. Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero. FLUD - VINNOVA. What is Metal Deposition?.

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Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West

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Almir herali anna karin christiansson mattias ottosson university west

Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West

Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero

FLUD - VINNOVA


What is metal deposition

What is Metal Deposition?

  • Metal deposition is an additiveprocess that joins metal beads

  • side-by-side

  • layer-by-layer

  • according to predefined paths.

  • Beads are formed by melting metal wire (or powder) using a heat source, e.g. a laser or other welding equipment


Metal deposition example

Metal deposition example

Deposition movie


Close up view of the melt pool

Close-up view of the melt pool


Some applications

Some applications

  • Prototyping

  • New manufacturing

    • Fabrication

    • Shape modification

  • High-value component repair or modification


Fabrication

Fabrication

Welding, forging, machining, casting, metal deposition, sheet metal forming


Fabrication example ti 6al 4v

Fabrication – example Ti-6Al-4V

machining + welding

sheet metal + welding

LMD

LMD (weld prep)

casting


Process advantages lmd

Process advantages - LMD

  • Standard welding cell rather than specially made high-cost equipment

  • Laser heat source implies low heat input

  • Metal wire instead of powder

  • A 6-axis robot offers flexibility

  • Reduction in waste material and energy

  • Potential for cost efficiency and shorter lead times


Identified difficulties

Identified difficulties

  • Demanding from a sensor and measurement point of view

  • The process is not fully understood

  • The use of wire imposes certain limitations

  • ...


Process related difficulties

Process related difficulties

  • Several process parameters need careful tuning to obtain a stable process.

  • For example:

  • Laser power/wire speed ratio

  • Wire tip position relative the weld pool

  • Estimated bead height


Process related difficulties1

Process related difficulties

Incorrect process parameters usually lead to:

  • formation of droplets

    gives irregular deposition

  • insufficient melting of the wire

    can lead to lack of fusion


Almir herali anna karin christiansson mattias ottosson university west

Laser power/wire speed vs. weld quality


Results manual control

Results – manual control

Common errors without feedback

Manual control with feedback


Automation of lmd

Automation of LMD


Welding tool sensor configuration

Welding tool - sensor configuration


Feedforward height control

Feedforward height control


Pi control of bead width

PI-control of bead width


Results

Results

  • Developed an LMD cell with a sensor- and measurement system

  • Stable process ensured, manual/automatic control

  • Good dimensional accuracy

  • Reduced risk for lack of fusion defects


Future work

Future work

University West / industrial partners:

Increase the knowledge about the LMD process, e.g. temperature influence on the geometrical and mechanical properties of the deposited parts. Develop Off-Line Programming tools.

Manufacturing industry:

Work towards industrialization of the LMD process


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