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Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry. Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero. FLUD - VINNOVA. What is Metal Deposition?.

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Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West

Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero

FLUD - VINNOVA

what is metal deposition
What is Metal Deposition?
  • Metal deposition is an additiveprocess that joins metal beads
  • side-by-side
  • layer-by-layer
  • according to predefined paths.
  • Beads are formed by melting metal wire (or powder) using a heat source, e.g. a laser or other welding equipment
metal deposition example
Metal deposition example

Deposition movie

some applications
Some applications
  • Prototyping
  • New manufacturing
    • Fabrication
    • Shape modification
  • High-value component repair or modification
fabrication
Fabrication

Welding, forging, machining, casting, metal deposition, sheet metal forming

fabrication example ti 6al 4v
Fabrication – example Ti-6Al-4V

machining + welding

sheet metal + welding

LMD

LMD (weld prep)

casting

process advantages lmd
Process advantages - LMD
  • Standard welding cell rather than specially made high-cost equipment
  • Laser heat source implies low heat input
  • Metal wire instead of powder
  • A 6-axis robot offers flexibility
  • Reduction in waste material and energy
  • Potential for cost efficiency and shorter lead times
identified difficulties
Identified difficulties
  • Demanding from a sensor and measurement point of view
  • The process is not fully understood
  • The use of wire imposes certain limitations
  • ...
process related difficulties
Process related difficulties
  • Several process parameters need careful tuning to obtain a stable process.
  • For example:
  • Laser power/wire speed ratio
  • Wire tip position relative the weld pool
  • Estimated bead height
process related difficulties1
Process related difficulties

Incorrect process parameters usually lead to:

  • formation of droplets

gives irregular deposition

  • insufficient melting of the wire

can lead to lack of fusion

results manual control
Results – manual control

Common errors without feedback

Manual control with feedback

results
Results
  • Developed an LMD cell with a sensor- and measurement system
  • Stable process ensured, manual/automatic control
  • Good dimensional accuracy
  • Reduced risk for lack of fusion defects
future work
Future work

University West / industrial partners:

Increase the knowledge about the LMD process, e.g. temperature influence on the geometrical and mechanical properties of the deposited parts. Develop Off-Line Programming tools.

Manufacturing industry:

Work towards industrialization of the LMD process

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