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Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry. Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero. FLUD - VINNOVA. What is Metal Deposition?.

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Laser Metal Deposition: Supporting technology for manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Almir Heralić, Anna-Karin Christiansson, Mattias Ottosson, University West

Torbjörn Norlander, Peter Jonsson, Börje Nordin, Volvo Aero

FLUD - VINNOVA


What is metal deposition
What is Metal Deposition? manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Metal deposition is an additiveprocess that joins metal beads

  • side-by-side

  • layer-by-layer

  • according to predefined paths.

  • Beads are formed by melting metal wire (or powder) using a heat source, e.g. a laser or other welding equipment


Metal deposition example
Metal deposition example manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Deposition movie


Close up view of the melt pool
Close-up view of the melt pool manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Some applications
Some applications manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Prototyping

  • New manufacturing

    • Fabrication

    • Shape modification

  • High-value component repair or modification


Fabrication
Fabrication manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Welding, forging, machining, casting, metal deposition, sheet metal forming


Fabrication example ti 6al 4v
Fabrication – example Ti-6Al-4V manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

machining + welding

sheet metal + welding

LMD

LMD (weld prep)

casting


Process advantages lmd
Process advantages - LMD manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Standard welding cell rather than specially made high-cost equipment

  • Laser heat source implies low heat input

  • Metal wire instead of powder

  • A 6-axis robot offers flexibility

  • Reduction in waste material and energy

  • Potential for cost efficiency and shorter lead times


Identified difficulties
Identified difficulties manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Demanding from a sensor and measurement point of view

  • The process is not fully understood

  • The use of wire imposes certain limitations

  • ...


Process related difficulties
Process related difficulties manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Several process parameters need careful tuning to obtain a stable process.

  • For example:

  • Laser power/wire speed ratio

  • Wire tip position relative the weld pool

  • Estimated bead height


Process related difficulties1
Process related difficulties manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Incorrect process parameters usually lead to:

  • formation of droplets

    gives irregular deposition

  • insufficient melting of the wire

    can lead to lack of fusion


Laser power/wire speed vs. weld quality manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Results manual control
Results – manual control manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

Common errors without feedback

Manual control with feedback


Automation of lmd
Automation of LMD manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Welding tool sensor configuration
Welding tool - sensor configuration manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Feedforward height control
Feedforward height control manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Pi control of bead width
PI-control of bead width manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry


Results
Results manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

  • Developed an LMD cell with a sensor- and measurement system

  • Stable process ensured, manual/automatic control

  • Good dimensional accuracy

  • Reduced risk for lack of fusion defects


Future work
Future work manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry

University West / industrial partners:

Increase the knowledge about the LMD process, e.g. temperature influence on the geometrical and mechanical properties of the deposited parts. Develop Off-Line Programming tools.

Manufacturing industry:

Work towards industrialization of the LMD process


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