Structures of the purine and pyrimidine bases
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Structures of the Purine and Pyrimidine Bases. Example of the Structure of a Nucleotide. Base. Nucleoside. Nucleotide. Chemical Structure of a Nucleic Acid. Voet Fig. 3-6. Double Helical Structure of DNA. Note that the strands run antiparallel Note that the helix is 20 Å wide.

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Structures of the Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

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Structures of the Purine and Pyrimidine Bases


Example of the Structure of a Nucleotide

Base

Nucleoside

Nucleotide


Chemical Structure of a Nucleic Acid

Voet Fig. 3-6


Double Helical Structure of DNA

Note that the strands run antiparallel

Note that the helix is 20 Å wide.

There are about 10 base pairs per turn of the helix.

One turn of the helix is 34 Å

The base pairs are 3.4 Å apart

Major groove

Voet Fig. 3-9


Base Pairing

Voet Fig. 23-1


Many proteins associate

With DNA through the

Major and Minor

grooves

Major

Groove

http://www.clunet.edu/BioDev/omm/gallery.htm


Space-filling Model of B-DNA

Backbones of the strands are bright green and bright red

The bases on the corresponding backbones are lighter green and pink


Helical Structures

A-DNA

B-DNA

Z-DNA

Voet Fig. 23-2


Supercoiling of DNA

Supercoiled DNA

Relaxed DNA


Denaturation of DNA

Voet Fig. 23-15


Restriction Endonucleases

Voet Fig. 3-18


Restriction Digest

Cutting DNA with Restriction Endonucleases followed by Analysis by Gel Electrophoresis

B

A

C

A

C

B


Visualizing DNA Fragments in Gels

Voet Fig. 3-20


Southern Analysis

Voet Fig. 23-28


Chain Termination Method of DNA Sequencing

Voet Fig. 3-23


DNA Sequencing Instruments

Fluorescent dye-conjugated derivatives of the Dideoxynucleotides can be used in DNA Sequencing Instruments


Automated Sequencing

Example of data obtained from a DNA sequencing reaction using fluorescent (dye-conjugated) derivatives of dideoxynucleotides

Voet Fig. 3-25


Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification of DNA

Garrett and Grisham Fig. 13-21

See Voet Fig. 3-32


Plasmids can Serve as Cloning Vehicles (Vectors)

Voet Fig. 3-27


Construction of a Recombinant DNA

Voet Fig. 3-29


Selection of Transformants

Vector DNAs must be capable of replicating in the host cells and must carry a selectable marker


Selection of Transformants of Interest

Voet Fig. 3-31


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