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Lecture 28: Impacts on the World Order: Welcoming the Non-state Actors. 28 th April 2003 (Monday). Question of Week 4: Why was 911 so Special?. George W Bush: “ A Threat with No Precedent ”… Actor Event Venue Tool Timing The Actor – Non-state Actors!!. Structure of Lecture 28: .

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lecture 28 impacts on the world order welcoming the non state actors

Lecture 28: Impacts on the World Order:Welcoming the Non-state Actors

28th April 2003 (Monday)

question of week 4 why was 911 so special
Question of Week 4:Why was 911 so Special?
  • George W Bush: “A Threat with No Precedent”…
  • Actor
  • Event
  • Venue
  • Tool
  • Timing
  • The Actor –Non-state Actors!!
structure of lecture 28
Structure of Lecture 28:
  • Definition of Non-state Actors
  • Organizational Structure of Al-Qaeda
  • Concept of the 2-dimensional (2D) World
  • Concept of the 3-dimensional (3D) World
  • Conclusion –
    • Post-911 as a Systematic Fight Back from the State Actors?
trans nationalism
Trans-nationalism
  • State Actors and Nationalism

Vs Non-state Actors and Trans-nationalism

  • Goals of Trans-nationalist Organizations:
    • Beyond the Sole Interests of ONE State
    • Common Interests of Many States (e.g. Pan-Slavism)
    • Common Interests of Many People, but against the Sole Interests of States (e.g. Environmentalism)
  • Membership: Trans-nationalistic
  • Quasi-state Structural Organization (refer to Part II)
legitimate non state actors
“Legitimate” Non-state Actors
  • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
  • Established 1991
  • 50 “Non-state” Members, Representing 100million People
  • http://www.unpo.org/
  • Aboriginals in Australia
  • East Turkestan
  • Tibet
  • Taiwan
  • Kurdistan
nsas vs ngos
NSAs Vs NGOs
  • Non-state Actors
    • “Legitimate” NSA: Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
    • “Illegitimate” NSA: Al-Qaeda
  • Non-governmental Organizations
    • NGO Research Center at Tsinghua University
    • Green Peace, Oxfam, Friends of the Earth…
illegitimate nsa transfiguration
Illegitimate NSA: Transfiguration
  • NSA: the Ability of “Transfiguration” into States
    • Part of Al-Qaeda  Afghanistan (as a “cell”)
    • Part of Al-Qaeda Remains a “Terrorist” Umbrella Organization
    • Taliban “Transformed” Back into Al-Qaeda
  • Green Peace can’t Replace the US Government!
nature of al qaeda
Nature of Al-Qaeda
  • Al-Qaeda = the “Base”…of what?
  • Decentralized, Loose Connection of “Cells”
  • Founding Members:
    • Former Mujahedeen Fighters in Afghanistan +
    • “Arab Afghans” (Middle Eastern Supporters of Mujahedeens)
  • New Members:
    • Anti-state Advocators Around the World (for various reasons)
leadership structure of al qaeda
Leadership Structure of Al-Qaeda
  • Supreme Leader:
    • Osama Bin Laden
  • Vice-Leader:
    • Ayman al-Zawahiri
    • Former Leader of Muslim Brotherhoods of Egypt
  • Military Commander:
    • Mohammed Atef
    • Police Leader in Egypt
diplomatic capabilities
Diplomatic Capabilities
  • “Untraditional” Alliance with NSAs/ NGOs
    • Abu Sayyaf (Moro Islamic Liberation Front) of the Philippines
    • Jemaah Islamiah (JI) of Indonesia
  • “Traditional” Alliance with States
    • Cooperation with Afghanistan and Sudan
    • “Understanding” with KSA, UAE and Pakistan
  • Practice of the Financial World:
    • “Merge” with Muslim Brotherhoods of Egypt
    • “Split” into Regional Groups in Kenya and Tanzania
financial capabilities i
Financial Capabilities (I)
  • William Wechsler: “Strangling the Hydra – Targeting Al Qaeda’s Finances”
  • The Ways to Make Money:
    • Legal Business and Investment (~ National Financial Investment Scheme)
    • Criminal Schemes (e.g. Opium)
    • Direct Donations (~ “Direct Tax”)
    • Indirect Donations (~ “Indirect Tax”)
financial capabilities ii
Financial Capabilities (II)
  • How to Generate Cash Flow?
    • Cash Smuggling
    • Formal Banking System (Bank Havens)
    • Underground Banking System (hawala)
  • Concept of “National Reserve”?
    • Balance Budget!
propaganda capability
Propaganda Capability
  • “Partnership” with Qatar Gulf TV (Al-Jazeera)
    • 35 million Viewers in the Middle East
    • Osama Bin Laden’s Friendship with TV Producers?
  • Two-front Propaganda War:
    • Historicism of its Image
    • Modernism of its Applicability and Technique
  • Iraqi Partnership with CNN in Gulf War (1990)
    • CNN Accused of “Being Used” by Saddam Hussein for First-handed News Reports?!
assigned readings
Assigned Readings
  • Main Text:
    • William Wechsler: “Strangling the Hydra – Targeting Al Qaeda’s Finances” (H&R P.129-143)
  • Supplementary Text:
    • Louise Richardson: “Terrorists as Transnational Actors.” Taylor, Max and Horgan, John. Ed. The Future of Terrorism. London: Frank Cass, 2000. P.200-219.
what is 2d
What is 2D??
  • 2-Dimensional World System:
    • Horizontal Relationship
    • “The States said it all”
    • No Upper Authority Higher than the States
    • No Lower Voluntary Movements across the States
  • e.g. RISK
the westphalian world system
The Westphalian World System
  • Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
    • The First European “World War”
    • Holy Roman Empire, France, Sweden, Denmark, Spain
    • Battleground: Modern Germany
  • Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
    • Signed by All Major States at the time
    • Settled State Borders
    •  Decline of Feudalism and the Influence of Church over Internal Affairs of States
    •  Rise of Absolutism & Nationalism within the States
state non state actors why round i fight
State > Non-state Actors, why??ROUND I – Fight!
  • Better Protection over Citizens
  • Better Esprit de corps during the Time of Great Discovery, Revolution and Scientific Evolution
  • Increased National Uniqueness:
    • Language, Culture, Religions…
  • The Rule of Reasons:
    • Nationalism/ Machiavellianism
    • > Philosophy/ Theology …
horizontal relationship the rule of realism
Horizontal Relationship: The Rule of Realism
  • International Relations Theories:
    • Realism (Hans Morgenthau)
    • Neo-Realism (Kenneth Waltz)
    • Classicism/ Marxism/ Statism/ Gender Studies/ Bureaucratism…
  • Realism: State Actions Governed by Interest Maximization
  • Neo-Realism: State Actions Governed by Security Maximization
  • Focus: Geo-politics/ Oceanic-politics
what is 3d
What is 3D??
  • 3-Dimensional World System:
    • Vertical Relationship
    • The States can’t say it all
    • Upper Authority Higher than the States
    • Lower Voluntary Movements Across the States
  • e.g. Romance of the Three Kingdoms VIII –
    • The Concept of Exiled Army
    • NOT Roman of the Three Kingdoms IX –why?
pre modern 3d world system
Pre-Modern 3D World System
  • Barbarians
    • Overthrew the Roman Empire with Limited State Efforts
  • Medieval Church
    • The Order of Crusades by Pope Urban II (1095)
  • Feudalism
    • Holy Roman Empire as a Loose Confederation of Feudal States
  • Mercantile Armies
    • Army Paid in Money to Fight for Sparsely-populated States
the post westphalian world system after 911
The “Post-Westphalian” World System after 911……
  • 911: Interaction of State Actors + Non-state Actors
  • Horizontal Relations + Vertical Relations  Three-dimensional (3D) World
  • Decline of National Authority over its own Land (“Homeland”) and People
  • Rise of Voluntarism of People over their Countries
  • Fundamental Conflicts between State and Non-state Actors
non state actors state actors why round ii fight
Non-state Actors > State Actors, Why??ROUND II, FIGHT!
  • Era of Globalization
    • Technological Proliferation (e.g. Easy Access to “Mass Destruction Weapons”)
  • Increased Horizontal Mobility of People Around the World
    •  Decreased Conscious of Nationalism
    •  Increased Concern over the Future of Human Beings on a Whole
saturation of state development
“Saturation” of State Development
  • Impossibility of Any Sort of State to Take Care of People with Trans-national Interests
  • Increased Burden of States
    • Hinder their Ability to Carry out Alternative Political Goals
    • e.g. Welfare States Vs Cultural Development
    • e.g. Industrial Development Vs Environmentalism
vertical horizontal relationship the new rule of the world
Vertical + Horizontal Relationship: The New Rule of the World?
  • Horizontal Rule of Neo-Realism still Dominates the States
  • Vertical Rules of Non-state Actors:
    • To Advance its Ideological Goals (e.g. Anti-capitalism/ Environmentalism)
    • By Whatever Means (from Peace to Terror)
    •  No Realism at all
    •  Unpredictable by the States
new rule of the states in the 3d world
New Rule of the States in the 3D World
  • “Pre-emptive Realism”
    • Bush Doctrine II (Turbo)
    • State Actions Governed by Maximization of Security through Overtaking the Non-state Actors Pre-emptively
  • Focus: Virtual-politics + Sub-conscious-politics
    • National Boundary No Longer Important
    • Enemies are Perceived in the Virtual Community + Sub-consciousness
a wiser doctrine of bush
A Wiser Doctrine of Bush…

“Al-Qaeda is to terror what the Mafia is to crime.

But its goal is not making money;

its goal is remaking the world.”

–George W Bush

reassessing the anti terror coalition
Reassessing the Anti-Terror Coalition
  • Why did Virtually Almost All States Join the Anti-Terror Coalition?
    • Why did Libya Support USA?
    • In Support of USA Vs Afghanistan?
    • A Concerted Effort of the States Vs Non-state Actors?
  • Reassessing the List of “Foreign Terrorist Organizations”
    • By US Office of Counterterrorism (Aug 2002)
    • “Terrorism”: against the people, or against the very identity of the states?
    • The Black-list of the World of States?
current condition of non state actors
Current Condition of Non-state Actors
  • With the Existing Advantages of NSAs
    • Over its Sluggish Advancement in the Past Centuries
  • With the Mutual-understanding of States of the World
    • To Suppress the Over-development of NSAs
future of non state actors i
Future of Non-state Actors (I)
  • Possibility #1: Rule of NSAs
    • No States are Able to Counter-balance the US Hegemony
    •  But the people Within the States are Discontent towards the Hegemony
    •  State-actors are Hopeless to Help them  Rise of NSAs
  • Possibility #2: Deaths of NSAs
    • All States and People are Happy to be Ruled by a Single Hegemon, with the Same Set of Identity, Culture and Economy
    •  People are Subordinate to their States
    •  States are Subordinate to the Hegemony
    •  NSAs = Irrelevant, with Few Support from People
future of non state actors ii
Future of Non-state Actors (II)
  • Possibility #3: “Balance of Power”
    • States are Inter-balancing Against One Another
    •  Different States Need Assistance from Different NSAs
    •  States (as a group) also Balance Against the NSAs (as another group)
    •  The World System is Inter-balancing Between Different States, as well as Between State-actors and Non-state Actors
the end

~~The End~~

Thank you for attending

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