20th international aids conference 2014
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20th international aids conference 2014

Feasibility and acceptability of an antiretroviraltreatment as prevention (TasP) intervention in rural South AfricaResultsfrom the ANRS 12249 TasP cluster-randomised trialC. Iwuji, J. Orne-Gliemann, F. Tanser, R. Thiébaut, J. Larmarange, N. Okesola, ML. Newell, F. Dabis for the ANRS 12249 TasP study

20th International AIDS Conference 2014


Background and objectives

Background and objectives


20th international aids conference 2014

ART as prevention

  • Plasma HIV viral load: primary determinant of the risk of HIV transmission (Quinn NEJM 2000)

  • Good evidence that ART reduces sexual transmission of HIV (Cohen NEJM 2011, Tanser Science 2013)

  • What is the effectiveness of using ART as prevention (TasP) at the population level in an HIV hyper-endemic community in rural KwaZulu-Natal?


Objectives of the anrs tasp trial

Objectives of the ANRS TasP trial

Phase 1

Phase 2

  • Phase 1: March 2012-June 2014

    • To estimate the feasibility and acceptability of the TasP intervention at community and health facility levels

    • To validate and update the parameters of the modelused to estimate the impact of the intervention and sample size:

      • uptake of HIV testing, HIV prevalence, linkage to care upon HIV diagnosis, ART uptake and internal migration

  • Overall: March 2012-June 2016

    • To evaluate the effect of ART initiated immediately after HIV diagnosis, irrespective of CD4 count criteria, on HIV incidence in the general population in the same setting

2014

2016

2012


Design and methods registration number in http clinicaltrials gov nct01509508

Design and methods(Registration number in http://clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT01509508)


20th international aids conference 2014

Study design

Home-based HIV-testing

  • Cluster randomized trial protocol: (Iwuji C et al. Trials 2013)

  • Sample size calculations and assumptions

    • 1,000 eligible participants/cluster; 22,000 participants in the 22 clusters implemented in full trial

    • 80% power to show a 34% reduction in cumulative incidence

Intervention

Control

Treat all HIV+ individuals

regardless of CD4 count

and clinical stage

Treat all HIV+ individuals

according to South African guidelines

(<=350 CD4,WHO stage 3 or 4)


Tasp trial area

TasP trial area

Sub-district : Hlabisa

Region : KwaZulu-Natal

  • 1 430 Km2

  • 228,000 Zulu speaking people

  • HIV prevalence is 24%

10 clusters (4 then 6) in phase 1

An additional 12 clusters in phase 2


Trial procedures

Trial procedures

Homestead identification

(GPS)


Trial procedures1

Trial procedures

Homestead identification

(GPS)

Homestead visit

Head of household verbal consent

Registrationof individuals

  • Inclusion criteria

  • Resident member of a household

  • 16 years or older

  • Able to give informed consent

  • Exclusion criteria

  • Untreated psychiatric disorder

  • Neurological impairment


Trial procedures2

Trial procedures

Homestead identification

(GPS)

  • Homestead visit

  • Head of household verbal consent

  • Registration of individuals

Homestead procedures

Household assets questionnaire

Individual questionnaire

DBS sample, rapid HIV testing

TasP card


Trial procedures3

Trial procedures

Homestead identification

(GPS)

  • Homestead visit

  • Head of household verbal consent

  • Registration of individuals

Homestead procedures

Household assets questionnaire

Individual questionnaire

DBS sample, rapid HIV testing

TasP card

HIV +

HIV -

TasP clinic- One per cluster (45mn walk max)- HIV treatment and care- Study questionnaires

Referral to TasP clinics

Repeat HIV test 6 mths later


Results

Results


Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22 nd of may 2014

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014


Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22 nd of may 20141

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014

95% of contacted individuals completed study questionnaire


Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22 nd of may 20142

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014


Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22 nd of may 20143

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014


20th international aids conference 2014

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014


Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22 nd of may 20144

Trial enrolment flowchart as of 22nd of May 2014


Repeat hiv ascertainment

Repeat HIV ascertainment

Ascertainment = rapid test performed (with a valid result)

or if individual reported to the fieldworkers already knowing being HIV+


Art coverage at referral among all hiv referred

ART coverage at referral (among all HIV+ referred)

  • ART coverage at referral: 39.7% (1,021 / 2,570)

    [95% CI: 37.4% - 42.1%]

    • Control clusters: 40.8% (583 / 1,430) [37.6 - 44.0]

    • Intervention clusters: 38.4% (438 / 1,140) [36.5 - 40.4]


Art initiation among those not on art at referral denominator includes those not in care

ART initiation (among those not on ART at referral, denominator includes those not in care)

  • ART initiation after referral: 33.9% (525 / 1,549)

  • ART initiation after referral (individuals observed at least one year): 48.0% (300 / 625)

    • Control clusters: 38.9% (107 / 275)

    • Intervention clusters: 55.1% (193 / 350)


Art initiation among those not on art at referral who are linked to tasp clinics

ART initiation (among those not on ART at referral who are linked to TasP clinics)

  • ART initiation after referral: 64.2% (386 / 601)

    • Control clusters: 45.2% (142 / 314)

    • Intervention clusters: 85.0% (244 / 287)

      • For those with CD4 > 350 cells/mm3: 80.1% (129 / 161)


Model parameters versus observed estimates

Model parameters versus observed estimates


Model parameters versus observed estimates1

Model parameters versus observed estimates


Model parameters versus observed estimates2

Model parameters versus observed estimates


Model parameters versus observed estimates3

Model parameters versus observed estimates


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • High community acceptance of the trial with 95% of contacted individuals participating

  • High initial and repeat HIV ascertainment rates

  • High initial ART coverage

  • Linkage to care amongst newly diagnosed HIV + takes time

  • High ART uptake rates amongst those linked to TasP clinics

  • Interventions to improve linkage to care being scaled-up

  • Phase 2 started June 2014


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Trial participants

  • Africa Centre staff

  • Traditional Authority

  • Department of Health, South Africa

  • Merck/Gilead

    ANRS 12249 Study Group: Till Bärnighausen, Sylvie Boyer, Alexandra Calmy, François Dabis (co-PI), Rosemary Dray-Spira, Ken Freedberg, John Imrie, Collins Iwuji (Coordinator South), Sophie Karcher, Joseph Larmarange, France Lert, Richard Lessells, Kevi Naidu, Colin Newell, Marie-Louise Newell (co-PI), Nonhlanhla Okesola, Tulio de Oliveira, Joanna Orne-Gliemann (Coordinator North), Deenan Pillay (co-PI), Bruno Spire, Frank Tanser, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Johannes Viljoen


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