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L9-13: Progressivism: A Critique of the Gilded Age. Agenda Objective : To understand.. What the progressive movement was an how it was a response to Gilded Age corruption. The effect of the Progressive movement on the shifting size and scope of the American government. Schedule :

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L9-13: Progressivism: A Critique of the Gilded Age

Agenda

Objective:

To understand..

What the progressive movement was an how it was a response to Gilded Age corruption.

The effect of the Progressive movement on the shifting size and scope of the American government.

Schedule:

Go Over Thesis Conferences

Wrap Up Populism

Introduce Progressive Era Presentations

Presentations Prep!

Homework

Unit Work:

Work on Presentations Outside of Class if Needed!

Writing Process Portfolio Work:

Last Day to Turn in Pre-Writing Check 1: G: Mon 3/3; Y: Tues 3/4


Guiding questions
Guiding Questions

  • What was the Populist Movement?

  • Who did it appeal to and why?

  • How was it a response to the Gilded Age?

  • Why wasn’t it successful?

  • What was its legacy on

    shifting size and scope

    of the national

    government?



Problems Facing Farmers 1865-1900 Civil War….

Drought

HighTariff

DebtandForeclosure



Farmers begin to organize
Farmers Begin to Organize Civil War….

  • Many farmers, subscribe to the agrarian myth

  • Try to form organizations with the goal of bringing back this lifestyle to America

  • See businesses “organized” in the form of trusts, workers organized in the form of unions, and decide that they too will organize.

  • Important to note: Farmers view themselves as indispensible, “we feed you all,” yet by the 1880s are only 3% of the working population.


Farmers alliance movement
Farmers Alliance Movement Civil War….

  • Throughout the United States farmers were organizing together into small farmers’ clubs These groups were called alliances and they usually were based on region and race.

    • You might have the Northwest Farmers’ Alliance or the Colored Farmers National Alliance.

  • In 1890, farmers’ alliance members helped get 5 US senators, 6 governors, and 46 congressmen elected.


Populist party 1892
Populist Party 1892 Civil War….

  • Encouraged by this electoral success, farmers again set their sights on a national coalition.

  • The three major farmers’ alliance held a convention in Omaha, Nebraska in 1892 and drew up a platform for a national political party, The Populist Party (The People’s Party).


What did the populists believe
What Did the Populists Believe? Civil War….

  • Platform:

    • Graduated income tax

    • Direct election of senators

    • 8 hour work day

    • Nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones

    • Free coinage of silver

  • Based on this platform, what did the Populist party believe?


What s up with silver
What’s Up With Silver? Civil War….

  • In 1893 United States had a paper money currency, just like we have today. Those dollar bills had value or worth, because they were backed by gold.

  • To oversimplify, each dollar

    bill that was floating around

    the economy could in theory

    be cashed in exchange for its

    value in gold.

  • Farmers believed, however,

    that by linking money to the

    rare gold, rather than the

    more abundant silver, prices

    were being kept artificially high.


What s up with silver1
What’s Up With Silver? Civil War….

  • Indebted farmers believed that the addition of an immense amount of silver money, not paper money, would inflate the currency leading to higher prices and easier debt payment.


What s up w ith silver
What’s Up Civil War….With Silver

  • Belief among the Populists, is that the government’s decision to withhold silver is a prominent example of the way in which the government sets fiscal policies that benefit urban capitalists.

  • Prices of goods and loans are being kept artificially high simply because the government is refusing to release this silver into circulation.

  • Big Business is winning and the common man is losing.



Populists gain support panic of 1893
Populists Gain Support: Panic of 1893 Civil War….

  • With the economic depression, different investors in US currency were cashing in their money for gold bars.

  • This threatened to completely wipe out the gold reserves the United States had.

  • If the US ran out of gold, the nation’s remaining currency would be rendered valueless. There would be nothing to back it up.

  • To prevent this from happening, the government asked J.P. Morgan and his bank for a loan of $65 million in gold.

  • Panic of 1893, begins to call into question the gold standard.


Election of 1896
Election of 1896 Civil War….

  • In 1896 there is another political election and the big issue is the gold/silver debate

  • The Democrats reject Cleveland as their nominee even though he is the sitting president and put up a man named William Jennings Bryan.


William jennings bryan
William Jennings Bryan Civil War….

  • 1860-1925

  • Ran for President 3 times (1896, 1900, 1908)

  • Was the U.S. Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913 to 1915.

  • Was a devout Christian, silverite, supporter of popular democracy, a peace advocate, a prohibition, and an opponent of Darwinism.

  • He was one of the best known orators an lecturers of time.

  • Called “The Great Commoner.”

  • Represented the State of Tennessee in the Scopes Monkey Trial in 1920


Cross of gold speech
Cross of Gold Speech Civil War….

  • At the democratic convention

    Bryan made what is perhaps the

    most famous Democratic

    convention speech ever.

  • “If they dare to come out in the

    open field and defend the gold

    standard as a good thing, we shall

    fight them to the uttermost, having

    behind us the producing masses of the

    nation and the world. Having behind

    us the commercial interests and the laboring interests and all the toiling masses, we shall answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”

  • Audio Rerecording: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/


Cross of gold speech1
Cross of Gold Speech Civil War….

  • What is the

    significance of this

    speech?


Populists put up bryan too
Populists Put Up Bryan Too! Civil War….

  • The populists are so impressed with Bryan and the fact that he is endorsing silver, that they also nominate Bryan for president.

  • The populists saw Bryan and his belief that money should be backed by silver as their ticket out of debt.


Election of 18961
Election of 1896 Civil War….


Election of 18962
Election of 1896 Civil War….

  • Why did Bryan lose?

  • Some argue that the election of 1896 is the most significant election since Lincoln’s in 1864. What is the significance of this election?



Significance of populism
Significance of Populism? Civil War….

  • Why wasn’t it successful?

  • What was its legacy on shifting size and scope of the national government?



Yellow brick road
Yellow Brick Road with

  • Represents the gold standard: a road that looks hopeful, but leads nowhere

  • Oz represents “oz” or the abbreviation for ounce, the standard measure for gold.


Scarecrow
Scarecrow with

  • Represents the struggling farmer at the turn of the century.

  • In Baum’s version, the Scarecrow rules Emerald City after Oz is dethroned.

  • Baum is predicting that farmers would gain political power


Tin man
Tin Man with

  • Represents the urban industrial worker who was enslaved to heartless industries.

  • In the book, the Tin Man rules the west. Baum is predicting that industry would move west, shutting out farmers.


Cowardly lion
Cowardly Lion with

  • Represented William Jennings Bryan

  • Described as having a loud roar but little else (recall Bryan lost to McKinley despite his powerful Cross of Gold Speech)

  • In having the Lion protect smaller beasts in a “small old forest,” Baum predicted that Bryan would return to Congress


The wizard of oz
The Wizard of Oz with

  • Represents President McKinley

  • Baum viewed McKinley as not being as powerful or wise as the façade he put forth.


The silver slippers
The Silver Slippers with

  • In the book Dorothy’s slippers are silver

  • When Dorothy walks on the Yellow Brick road it represents gold and silver coming together to increase America’s money supply (bimetallism)

  • In the book, her silver slippers are lost, representing the sliver issue losing

  • FYI: In the movie Dorothy’s slippers are ruby to showcase Technicolor


The munchkins
The Munchkins with

  • The “little people” in America whose power had been taken away by big business and industry

  • Baum saw these people as “slaves” to the eastern banking and industrial interests


The wicked witch of the west
The Wicked Witch of the West with

  • Symbolizes large industrial corporations that Baum thought oppressed “the little guy”


Dorothy
Dorothy with

  • Is thought to represent Americans, who Baum viewed as good-natured but naive


Toto with

  • Represents the Prohibitionist Party who were pro-Populist

  • Toto is a play on the term “teetotaller”—people who did not drink alcohol


Emerald city
Emerald City with

  • Thought to represent Washington, D.C. and the color of the dollar


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