Structural levels of language
Download
1 / 22

Structural Levels of Language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 123 Views
  • Uploaded on

Structural Levels of Language. Lecture 1. Ferdinand de Saussure. "Language is a system sui generis “ = a system where everything holds together The division of language into different structural levels is made only for the sake of investigation.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Structural Levels of Language' - aya


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Ferdinand de saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure

  • "Language is a system sui generis “ = a system where everything holds together

  • The division of language into different structural levels is made only for the sake of investigation.

  • We have to separate one linguistic fact from another in order to analyse it thoroughly.



Each linguistic level has its own specific features
Each linguistic level has its own specific features

  • Phonological – phoneme

  • Morphological - morpheme

  • Syntactical – word

  • Lexico-semantical – phrase/clause


Benveniste the hierarchical nature of language structure
Benveniste - the hierarchical nature of language structure

  • A phoneme + a phoneme = a morpheme

  • -e + -r = -er;

  • -f + -u + -l = -ful;

  • -m + -e + -n + -t = -ment


  • A morpheme + a morpheme = a word

  • drive- + -er = driver,

  • beauty- + -ful = beautiful;

  • refine- + -ment = refinement


  • A word + a word = a phrase (a clause)

  • blue + sky = blue sky;

  • nice + song = nice song;

  • high + mountains = high mountains


  • A sentence (clause) + a sentence (cause) = sentences of a higher order

  • the telephone rang + the boy woke up = The telephone rang and the boy woke up.


Phonemes morphemes words

It is not possible for an item of one level to combine with an item of another level

while preserving the qualities of the original level

an item of one level can pass over and be integrated into another level

it acquires the features of the level into which it has been integrated, abandoning the features it had in the previous level

Phonemes, morphemes, words


Is it possible to have a morpheme made of only one phoneme
Is it possible to have a morpheme made of only one phoneme? an item of another level

  • Yes, in English, there are morphemes consisting only of one phoneme

  • Example – (-s ) marker:

    the -s marker for the plural of the nouns;

    the -s marker for 3rd p. sg.;

    the -s marker for the genitive case


What about morphemes are there any words consisting of only one morpheme
What about morphemes? Are there any words consisting of only one morpheme?

,, ,,, , ;

It seems that there are many words consisting of only one morpheme.

  • a root morpheme + zero morpheme = word

    eye + 0º = eye

    There is structural qualitative difference between a morpheme and a word


J.Molhova: There are also many points in language where the respective levels not only function together but intersect

  • no morphological markers for gender

  • However, gender exists since some nouns are substituted by the pronoun ‘he’, others by ‘she', and still others by ‘it’

  • Ex., , , , 

  • Since it is not expressed on the morphological level then it should be part of the semantic structure of the noun


There is a similar parallel with the category of number
there is a similar parallel with the category of respective levels not only function together but intersectnumber


People family cattle
people, family, cattle respective levels not only function together but intersect

  • Their form does not point to plurality

  • On the syntactic level they always require a verb in the plural

  • The element of plurality is somewhere in the noun

  • If it is not in the grammatical form then it must bein its semantic structure


The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit
The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit respective levels not only function together but intersect

  • J.Molhova: every form has its content / meaning; and every content / meaning has its form


The difference between a grammatical and a lexical item
the difference between a grammatical and a lexical item respective levels not only function together but intersect

  • table - tables; cat - cats; girl- girls

  • table, cat, girl

    the common forms singular of the nouns

  • tables, cats, girls

    the common plural forms of the nouns.


This description refers both to the form and its meaning
This description refers both to the form and its meaning respective levels not only function together but intersect

  • The form is one and the same for the three items and the meaning accordingly

  • 0º - a grammatical form for the singular of the noun, common case

  • -s – a grammatical marker with the meaning of plurality in English

    the morphemes 0 and -s have these meanings irrespective of the lexical meanings of the items


Hypothesis respective levels not only function together but intersect: a grammatical category as a specific form with a specific meaning independent of the lexical meaning of the item

  • She is a teacher. (a noun)

  • She is a bla. (a noun, singular)

  • The bla blas (a verb, 3rd p. sg.)


Words consist of strings of sounds forming the phonological system of language
Words respective levels not only function together but intersect consist of strings of sounds, forming the phonological system of language

  • every word is phonologically motivated

  • a word of one language cannot consist of phonemes belonging to the system of sounds of another language

  • Ex. borrowings - camping - къмпинг

  • The former English phoneme is substituted by a Bulgarian one


a respective levels not only function together but intersectword must have a grammatical form compatible with the existing grammatical patterns in the language

  • It is not possible for any word to function without having a grammatical form

  • It is not possible for any word to follow the grammatical pattern of another language

    every word must be grammatically motivated


The grammatical motivation actually turns a morpheme or a group of morphemes into a word
The grammatical motivation actually turns a respective levels not only function together but intersectmorpheme or a group of morphemes into a word

  • It is impossible to add anything more to the word on the morphological level.

  • Ex. girl – girls

    girl-

    girl- + -0 = girl

    girl- + -s = girls


Grammatical motivation can be considered as grammatical completeness For this reason one can discuss problems of meaning connected with the word with greater confidence than with the morpheme


ad