Moving beyond what we know risk and resilience factors and the development of ebd
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Moving Beyond What We Know: Risk and Resilience Factors and the Development of EBD. Christine Christle Kristine Jolivette C. Michael Nelson University of Kentucky Terrance M. Scott University of Florida. Dismal Futures for Students with EBD. Difficulty maintaining jobs

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Moving beyond what we know risk and resilience factors and the development of ebd

Moving Beyond What We Know:Risk and Resilience Factorsand the Development of EBD

Christine Christle

Kristine Jolivette

C. Michael Nelson

University of Kentucky

Terrance M. Scott

University of Florida


Dismal futures for students with ebd
Dismal Futures for Students with EBD

  • Difficulty maintaining jobs

    • Only 44% had jobs 3 - 5 years after leaving school (McLaughlin, Leone, Warren, & Schofield, 1994)

  • Criminal Activity

    • 1/5 of students with EBD arrested while in school

    • 58% arrested 5 years after school

    • 73% of EBD drop outs arrested within 5 years of leaving school(Chesapeake Institute, 1994)


Risk and resilience
Risk and Resilience

  • Risk: conditions or situations that are empirically related to particular outcomes (Reddy et al., 2001)

  • Resilience: a characteristic that allows a person to make appropriate behavioral choices in the presence of multiple risk factors (Finley, 1994)


Risk and resilience1
Risk and Resilience

  • Operate through complex interactions across life domains

    • Individual

    • Family

    • School

    • Peer groups

    • Community


Individual factors

RISK

Cognitive deficits

Reading readiness

Following directions

Vocabulary

Social skills

RESILIENCE

Early intervention

Cognitive skills training

Parent training

Preschool programs

High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

Individual Factors


Family factors

RISK

Poor Parenting Skills

Neglect

Harsh - Abusive

Rejection

Substance abuse, crime

Child

Malnutrition

Aggression

Emotional problems

RESILIENCE

Prenatal parent training

Home visitation by nurses

Teach child

Health and self care skills

Emotional coping strategies

Family Factors


Family factors1

RISK

Poverty

Best predictor of behavioral deviation (Scott & Nelson, 1999)

Best predictor of school failure

RESILIENCE

Link families to needed services

Medical

Social Services

Employment

Teach educators about poverty (Payne, 1998)

Family Factors


School factors

RISK

Low school involvement

Failure cycle

Academics difficult

Student escapes

Teacher avoids

RESILIENCE

Include students in policy decisions

Match instruction to level of ability

Facilitate success

Effective academic instruction

Effective behavior management

School Factors


School factors1

RISK

Less academics

Truancy

Suspension

Expulsion

Dropping out

RESILIENCE

Increase active participation

Meaningful instruction

Alternative programs

Involve parents

School Factors


Peer factors

RISK

Peer rejection

Deviant peers

Deviancy training

Gang involvement

RESILIENCE

Teach social skills

Facilitate prosocial groups

Functional assessment

Replace deviant and gang involvement

Peer Factors


Community factors

RISK

Media - TV

Recreation

Neighborhood disorganization

Drugs

Firearms

RESILIENCE

Monitor -Teach reflection

After school programs

Community mentors (BBBSA)

School/Community links (SLP)

Drug prevention programs

LST

MPP

Community Factors


Present study
Present Study

  • Hypothesis: There is a correlation between school poverty rate and academic outcomes. We can predict that a school with high poverty will have lower academic outcomes.

  • #1: What academic variables or indicators separate effective schools that are at-risk due to poverty level compared to at-risk schools that are performing as expected?

  • #2: What differences in behavioral variables or indicators, if any, exist between these two types of schools?


Present study1
Present Study

  • Sample: ~6 elementary schools

    • 1-2 Sds below/above mean on CTBS

    • Matched by county - target 3rd grade

    • High county poverty & percentage of free/reduced lunch


Data collection
Data Collection

  • Survey: 32 questions - by administrator

  • Topical Areas

    • School-wide Expectations

    • School Climate and Discipline

    • Evaluation and Decision Making

    • Suspension, Expulsion, and Referrals

    • Unique Features of School

  • Supporting Materials (to attach)

    • School Handbook/Policies

    • Schedules/Calendar

    • 3rd grade Curricula


Data collection1
Data Collection

  • On-Site Observations: - Classrooms

    • Effective Practices

    • Transitions

    • Academic foci

    • Behavior management systems

  • On-Site Interviews: -Teachers, staff

    • Academic & behavioral expectations

      • Remedial plans/decision making process

    • School climate

    • Collaboration and partnerships


Data collection2
Data Collection

  • On-Site Observations: - School-wide

    • Hallways

    • Lunchroom w/transitions

    • Common areas

    • Physical surroundings

      • Staffing ratios

      • Expectations & rules

      • Materials & supplies

      • Behavior management

      • Behavioral incidents


Discussion
Discussion

  • What other variables should be observed?

  • Poverty is a salient variable that can negatively affect academic achievement - what other variables have similar effects?

  • Are schools that are academically effective also more behaviorally effective - what variables separate these two groups (discipline data; special education referral, truancy, drop out, or retention rates)?

  • What is the relationship between school effectiveness/safety and the community?


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