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Delinquency Dispositions: Legal Overview. Janet Mason Institute of Government UNC at Chapel Hill March, 2006. Juvenile vs. Criminal. Before disposition, how is a juvenile case different from a case in criminal court? Extra Miranda warning Detention with no bail No self-representation

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Delinquency dispositions legal overview
Delinquency Dispositions:Legal Overview

Janet Mason

Institute of Government

UNC at Chapel Hill

March, 2006


Juvenile vs criminal
Juvenile vs. Criminal

Before disposition, how is a juvenile case different from a case in criminal court?

  • Extra Miranda warning

  • Detention with no bail

  • No self-representation

  • No jury trial

  • No grand jury


Disposition is radically different
Disposition is radically different.

This Is Not Criminal Court!

Dispositions Are Not Sentences!


Disposition hearing g s 7b 2501
Disposition Hearing[G.S. 7B-2501]

  • Presumed to be open to public

  • Predisposition report, including risk and needs assessment (in most cases)

  • Court may consider relevant, reliable evidence, including hearsay

  • Hearing is informal


The court shall develop a disposition in each case considering
The court shall develop a disposition in each case, considering:

  • Seriousness of offense

  • Need to hold juvenile accountable

  • Protecting public safety

  • Juvenile’s culpability

  • Juvenile’s rehabilitative & treatment needs

  • Available resources

    G.S. 7B-2500


Dispositions available in every case
Dispositions Available in Every Case: considering:

  • Dismissal

  • Continuance – up to 6 months to allow family to take action

  • Order for evaluation / treatment

  • Referral of mentally ill or developmentally

    disabled juvenile to area

    mental health director

  • G.S. 7B-2501(d)

  • G.S. 7B-2502


Categories of additional dispositions
Categories of Additional Dispositions: considering:

Available in every case

- Level 1 - Community

Available only if certain conditions are met

-Level 2 – Intermediate

- Level 3 – Commitment


Four steps to determine which options are available
Four Steps to Determine Which Options Are Available considering:

  • Offense Classification

  • Delinquency History Level

  • The Chart

  • Exceptions to the Chart



Offense classification
Offense Classification: considering:

- Violent: A-E felony

- Serious: F-I felony or A1 misdemeanor

- Minor: Class 1, 2, or 3 misdemeanor


Offense offense adjud disposit date date date
Offense Offense Adjud. Disposit. considering:Date Date Date



Prior Adjudications considering:

A - E felony………………………… 4 points

F - I felony or A1 misdemeanor….. 2 points

Class 1, 2, or 3 misdemeanor….... 1 point

On probation at time of new offense..2 points

PointsHistory Level

0 - 1 Low

2 - 3 Medium

4 or more High


History level rules
History Level Rules considering:

1. If multiple adjudications in one session of court, use only most serious one

  • “Prior” means before the disposition

  • No points for current offense

  • Probation points only for current

    offense


The disposition chart
The Disposition Chart considering:

DELINQUENCY HISTORY

OFFENSE

LOWMEDIUMHIGH

(0-1 pts) (2-3 pts) (4 or more pts)

VIOLENT Level 2 or 3 Level 3 Level 3

SERIOUS Level 1 or 2 Level 2 Level 2 or 3

MINOR Level 1 Level 1 or 2 Level 2


Exceptions to the chart
Exceptions to the Chart considering:

  • At Level 3, court may order Level 2, based on extraordinary needs

  • At Level 2, court may order Level 3, if juvenile has been committed previously

  • Court may order Level 3 for a minor offense, if juvenile has 4 or more “prior adjudications”


Offense offense adjud disposit date date date1
Offense Offense Adjud. Disposit. considering:Date Date Date


Level 1 and level 2
Level 1 and Level 2 considering:

  • Probation is not a necessary element of every disposition.

  • Maximum probation = 12 mos. + 12 mos.

  • Restitution requires ability to pay.

  • Court must specify timing of intermittent confinement.

  • Disposition must be related

    to the juvenile’s needs.


Level 3 commitment to djjdp
Level 3 – Commitment to DJJDP considering:

1. Always for minimum of 6 months

2. Always (almost) for indefinite period

  • Absolute maximum (18, 19, or 21)

  • Maximum before right to notice/hearing

    a. adult maximum for same offense, or

    b. age 18, if extended commitment is option



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