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Test-controlled Development of Communication Services Ralf Tönjes 1 , Marten Fischer 1 , Patrick Wacht 2. Contact: 1 2. University of Applied Science Osnabrück, Germany. University of Applied Science Frankfurt, Germany. TTCN-3 User Conference 2011

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Contact r toenjes hs osnabrueck de 1 2

Test-controlled Developmentof Communication Services

Ralf Tönjes1, Marten Fischer1, Patrick Wacht2




University of Applied Science Osnabrück, Germany

University of Applied ScienceFrankfurt, Germany

TTCN-3 User Conference 2011

7 – 9 June 2011 - Bled, Slovenia



  • Motivation

  • Architecture

  • Service Description

  • Service Behaviour Model

  • Test Code Generation

  • Test Execution



  • Testing of communication services is becoming increasingly important

    • growing complexity of logic

    • short time to market desired

  • manual testing is time and cost consuming test automation required

  • current service creation environments (SCE) do not support test automation


How can test automation be realised

How can Test Automation be Realised?

  • Model-Based Testing

    • Model describes how a system should behave in response to an action (behaviour model)

    • Supply the action and see if the system responds as expected

is a partial description of



are derived


can be run


Abstract tests

Executable tests

are abstract versions of

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Step 4

Step 2

Step 3

Step 1

Step1 formal recording of service description

Step1: Formal Recording of Service Description

5 Stages Procedure

  • Adopted from telecom software development process OTES (Objects Through Essential Services)

  • Short textual description of use cases

  • Identification of roles of communication participants(e.g. browser, SIP-phone, Database)

  • Requirement specification (including pre- and post-conditions, i.e. states, andtarget action, i.e. messages sequence, for users)

  • Enhanced requirements specification(including technical details, such as value ranges, names of databases, tables and fields)

  • Identification of the communication interfaces(5-tuple of source and destination IP-address, port and protocol)

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Example: Click-to-Instant-Message (Click2IM)

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TTCN-3 requirements:

message flow description  derived from FSM (test cases)

test environment/SUT description  using connectivity concept (ports, component, Test Adapter, …)

test data (type definitions, templates)

Behaviour Model Editor with 3 specialised perspectives

Step2: Creation of Service Behaviour Model






Test Data


Composition of fsm finite state machine

Composition of FSM (Finite State Machine)

  • sFSM (sub Finite State Machine)

    • Reusable templates, which represent predefined message flows from standards

    • internal transitions are fixed, external transitions used to realise composition

    • usually protocol specific (e.g., SIP, TCP, HTTP)

  • Composition of sFSM with Transaction User



The fsm connector transaction user tu

The FSM Connector: Transaction User (TU)

  • interfaces of the sub finite state machines have the TU as sender or receiver

  • acts as mediator between possible client and server roles

  • does not contain information about the service implementation

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Connectivity Concept: Composition of SUT/Test Environment Description

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Connectivity Concept:

Mapping to TTCN-3

Test data editor

Test Data Editor

  • create and edit message templates

  • message structure reflected in tree view

  • specific for one port and its protocol


Contact r toenjes hs osnabrueck de 1 2


(TTCN-3 ports, timer, …)

Abstract Test Case Generator

Behaviour Model Editors


Test DataEditor

Step 3: Abstract Test Case Generation

FSM Editor











Behaviour Model Analyser

Test case generation fsm pathfinder

Test Case Generation: FSM Pathfinder


  • set of states and transitions between start- and end-state of FSM


  • finds all possible paths in FSM between start and end state

    • FSM considered as deterministic

    • branching = new test case

    • employs depth-first-search

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Test Case Generation: FSM Parser

Each path converted into test case by FSM Parser

  • state converted into a TTCN-3 function body

  • content of function specified by outgoing transition

  • FSM written from the service’s point of view  message based actions must be inverted




  • function s1_1() runs on c1 {

  • p1.send(msg);

  • alt {

  • p1.receive(msg2) -> …. { s2_1(); }

  • }

  • }

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Test Case Generation: Connectivity Parser

  • generates component using parameter from Connectivity Editor


Name ofComponent



Type of Port

Name of Port

own block in editor;



Primitive Variables

automatically generated for each message template

Message Variables

+ system component (only ports and static name)

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Test Case Generation: Connectivity Parser

  • generates port using parameter from Connectivity Editor

  • generates configuration file for Test Adapter (parameter provided in Ports)

Test Adapter configurationfile

Name of Port

Protocol (TCP/UDP)

Remote IP / Port

Role (Server/Client)

Local IP / Port


Port Definition




reference in model

send/receivable Message Types

Test case generation ttcn 3 code generator

Test Case Generation: TTCN-3 Code Generator

  • Writes the acquired / generated data as TTCN-3 code using Velocity*

  • * Java basedTemplate Engine (

Step 4 test execution

Step 4: Test Execution

  • TTCN-3 code will be executed after the code generation has been completed by the Test Case Generator

  • Execution realised within a Test Environment (e.g. TTWorkbench)

  • Test results are stored in a database to measure the development progress

  • Iterative delta testing: only new or modified test cases executed

  • Test Framework for synchronisation of test developer and service developer



  • Novelty: New approach eases the generation of test cases by

    • composing predefined finite state machines (FSM) for protocol sequences to a behaviour model (BM) of a service.

    • From the BM a TTCN-3 test suite is automatically derived.

    • The new concept of Transaction User (TU) enables testing of value added services

  • Benefits: Integration of Service Creation and Testing

    • Development of functional tests in parallel to service development  ensuring automated TTCN-3 based testing of services

    • Testing is integrated in a service creation environment allowing for regression tests

  • Re-Use by Others: General Applicability

    • test generation can be used for any SCE

    • generic configurable test adapter based on Java for TTCN-3 (e.g. for TCP, UDP ,…)

    • universal codec for generation of test patterns has been implemented



  • P. Wacht et al.: A New Approach to Design Graphically Functional Tests for Communication Services, IEEE NTMS, Paris, 7-10 February 2011.

  • P. Wacht et. al.: ComGeneration: die Dienstebeschreibung als Basis für automatisiertes Testen, VDE/ITG Fachtagung Mobilkommunikation, Osnabrück, 18-19 May 2011.

  • A. Lehmann et al.: “TeamCom: A Service Creation Platform for Next Generation Networks”, IEEE ICIW 2009, Venice/Mestre, Italy, 24-28 May 2009.

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