CONDITIONALS Conditionals have two parts;the if-clause and the main clause If ıt rains , I shall stay home tonight . ıf clause main clause Either the main clause or the if-clause can come first.
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Conditionals have two parts;the if-clause and the main clause
If ıt rains,I shall stay home tonight.
ıf clause main clause
Either the main clause or the if-clause can come first.
When the if-clause precedes the main clause,we seperate the two clauses with a comma.
You will wake the baby up if you keep speaking in this way.
If you keep speaking in this way,you will wake the baby up.
vConditionals are usually introduced by ‘if’.Other expressions with a similar meaning are;
unless, providing/provided (that), as long as, in case, on condition (that), but for + noun, otherwise, or (else), what if, supposing (that), even if, only if, assuming (that),
in the event (that).
You can camp hereprovidedyou leave no mess here.
Unlessyou start at once you will be too late.
You are welcome to stay with usas long asyou share the rent.
Some cyclists carry repair outfitsin casethey have a puncture.
I will give you the day offon condition thatyou work on Saturday morning.
We must be back beforemidnight;otherwisewe’ll be locked out.
She ran;otherwise, she would have missed her schoolbus.
We have to be in time or (else) we won’t get a good seat.
That was very clever,but what if you had slipped?
What if I came tomorrow instead of this afternoon?
Supposing you fell in love with your boss,what would you do?
You must leave the hotel even ifyou aren’t ready.
Even if I become a millionaire,I shall always be loyal to my wife.
Only if it snows tomorrowwill we cancel the picnic.
TYPE 1( PROBABLE)
(True or likely to happen in the present or future)
vThe meaning is present or future,but the verb in the if-clause is in a present ,not a future tense.
Note that present cont. and present perfect are also possible in the if-clause.
If I have money next year,I will go to Egypt to see the
If the fog gets thicker, the plane may be diverted.
If your documents are in order, you can leave at once.
You must eat less if you are planning to lose some weight.
Oil floats if you pour it on water.
If there is a shortage of any product, prices of that product go up.
If you are looking for Peter, you will find him upstairs.
I’ll ask the waiter the bill if you have finished dinner.
If he has written the letter, I will post it.
If you have got any exams tomorrow,why aren’t you studying?
Give my love to Jane if you see her.
TYPE 2( IMPROBABLE)
(Untrue in the present;used to give advice)
vAfter ‘if ’,were is used instead of was for all persons in type 2 in formal English.
If I were you I would plant some trees round my house.(but I am not you)
If she lived near her office she’d be in time for work.( but she doesn’t)
I’d lend it to you if I had a map.
(I haven’t a map; the meaning is present)
vThere is no difference in time between the first and second types of the conditional sentences.Type 2, like type 1, refers to the present or future,and the past tense in the if-clause indicates unreality or improbability.
If you asked me nicely, I might take you out to lunch.
If he had a permit,he could get a job.
You might succeedif you tried again.
NOTE that could and might can replace ‘would’ in conditional structures.
Peter is on holiday;he is touring Italy.If I were on holiday I might be touring Italy too.
if + past continuous is possible.
( we are travelling by air and) I hate flying.If we were travelling by boat, I ‘d feel much happier.
(Imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past; used to expressregrets)
If you had worked harder last year, you’d have
probably passed your exam
If I had known that you were coming I would have met
you at the airport.( but I didn’t know ,so I didn’t come.)
He would have been stopped at the frontier if he had
tried to leave the country.( but he didn’t try.)
NOTEthat could and might may be used instead of ‘would’.
If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.(ability).
If we had found him earlier we might have saved his life.(possibility)
If my parents hadn’t been poor I could have gone to university.
If the illness had been diagnosed a day earlier, it might have made all the difference.
vWe can use the past perfect continuous in the if-clause.
I was wearing a seat belt when the accident happened.If
I hadn’t been wearing one,I would have been seriously injured.
vA combination of types 2 and 3 is possible.
The plane I intended to catch crashed and everone was killed.If I had caught the plane,I would be dead now.
( type 3 + type 2)
If I had studied really hard at school I would be sitting in a comfortable office now; I wouldn’t be sweeping the streets.
( type 3 + type 2)
Wish / If only
A. I wish (if only) + Past tense
Use: wish/regret about a present situation we want to be different.
/wish wewere in Paris now. (It's a pity we aren't.)
B. I wish (if only) + could + bare infinitive
Use: wish/regret in the present concerning lack of ability
/ wish Icould swim. (but I can't)
C.I wish (if only) + Past Perfect
Use: regret that something happened or didn't happen in the past
/ wish youhad toldme earlier. (but you didn't)
I wish (if only) + subject + would + bare infUse:wish for a future change unlikely to happen or wish to express dissatisfaction; polite request implying dissatisfaction or lack of hope
We never say: I wish I would, He wishes he would ..etc.
b.wish + inanimate subject + wouldis used to express the speaker's lack of hope or disappointment
I wish hewould stop smoking.
(But I don't think he will - wish for a future change unlikely to happen.)
I wish studentswould pay more attention, (dissatisfaction)
I wish the windwould stop blowing.
(But I'm afraid it won't stop blowing - wish implying disappointment)
I wish youwould be more careful.
(Please, be more careful - request implying lack of hope)
Should you have any difficulty in getting spare parts ring this number.
( if you should have any difficulty in ........... )
Should these biscuits arrive in a damaged condition please inform the factory.
( if the biscuits should arrive in a damaged ........... )
Were I in your shoes, I would treat her like a lady.
( if I were in your shoes, ............... )
Had I realized what you intended, I would have tried to change your mind.
(if I had realized what you intended, .............. )
If it weren’t for his wife’s money he would never be a director.
If it weren’t for the children, we wouldn’ t have anything to talk about.
If it hadn’t been for your help, I would have been in great trouble.
My car broke down. If it hadn’ t been for / But for that, we would have been in time.
a) have happened / would / have got
b) should happen / could/get
c) would happen / were / to get
d) were / will / get