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Middle Management Effectiveness Programme. Days 4 & 5 Excellence in Execution David White. Middle Management Effectiveness Programme. Welcome back. We last met in the winter And now we’re heading into autumn How have the seasons treated the industry? The sun has shone on the markets

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slide1

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

Days 4 & 5

Excellence in Execution

David White

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

welcome back
Welcome back
  • We last met in the winter
    • And now we’re heading into autumn
  • How have the seasons treated the industry?
    • The sun has shone on the markets
  • But the recession is not over yet
    • A major challenge for management is to predict and navigate the climate

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the programme
The Programme

Managing Individual

Performance

Coaching

Feedback

Leaders vs Managers

Action centred leadership

Mission & Vision

Presentation skills

Leading project teams

Change Management

Delegation

Coaching

Story-telling

Personal Style

Assertiveness &

Negotiating

Day 2

Day 3

Day 1

Day 4/5

the menu
The Menu

Coaching

high performance

Conclusions

Action Planning

Review

Managing

Remote or project

teams & suppliers

Evening

Morning

Afternoon

Day 1

Managing Change

Day 2

Meal &

Presentation

Delegation & Empowerment

economist trends
Economist Trends
  • Three trends: globalisation, atomisation, and knowledge management
  • Each will impact on the structure, functioning and distribution of teams within and across businesses
  • Multi-cultural and geographically dispersed teams will increase, as work gets broken down into smaller units to be managed by specialist teams linked by technology
  • Future value of organisations will be more closely linked to the knowledge they can leverage; knowledge which is frequently an amalgam of individual experience, behaviour and understanding

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the rise of virtual teams
The rise of virtual teams
  • We looked at conventional teams last time - but the more common rule is now the virtual team
  • Co-workers with complementary skills committed to a common purpose and goals with accountability
  • Geographically and organisationally dispersed
  • Using various telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish goals
    • What virtual teams do you manage or are part of?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

pros cons of virtual teams
Pros/Cons of Virtual Teams
  • Benefits:
    • allows organisations to draw from a large pool of qualified participants while minimising cliques and politics
  • Drawbacks:
    • loss of social contact, feelings of isolation, lack of trust (especially with new members)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

success factors in virtual teams
Success Factors in Virtual Teams
  • High levels of trust among team members
  • Effective use of technology
  • Clear implementation of team concept
  • Effective individual performance

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

cross location home workers
Cross location/home workers
  • Isolation
    • Lack of management support & guidance
    • Lack of team support & guidance
    • Lack of technical support & guidance
    • Lack of administrative support & guidance
    • Missing information for job performance
    • Missing information for opportunities (jobs, development, social etc)
  • Environment
    • Blurred boundaries between working and leisure (time, focus, professionalism)
    • Costs & logistics – space, technology & equipment, consumables
    • Tax issues
  • Cross location
    • Matrix management reporting conflicts
    • Lack of team cohesion and spirit
    • Problems with face-to-face communication
    • Problems of consistency

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

trust
Trust
  • Trust plays a critical role in influencing group effectiveness
  • Trust has been identified as the defining issue in understanding the effectiveness of virtual teams
    • Handy, 1995

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

trust1
Trust
  • Effective teamwork depends on trust
  • In a virtual environment, trust is more ability/task based than interpersonal relationship based
  • Level of member performance over time results in building or denial of trust

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

three levels of trust
Three Levels of Trust

Knowledge-based Trust

Calculus-based Trust

Identification-based Trust

High

Low

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

three levels of trust1
Three Levels of Trust
  • Calculus-based trust
    • We have more to gain than lose by and acting in good faith
    • Easily broken by a violation of expectations
    • Cannot sustain a team’s relationship
  • Knowledge-based trust
    • Knowing people well enough to be able to anticipate behaviour and avoid surprises
    • More stable than calculus-based trust
    • Develops over time
  • Identification-based trust
    • Based on social identity theory, ie we understand, appreciate, and even share each other\'s wants and needs.
    • Tend to forgive transgression because team is part of our personal identity

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

Professors Roy J. Lewicki and Maura A. Stevenson of the Ohio State University

trust in virtual teams
Trust in Virtual Teams
  • Cascio’s (2000) 3 traits to identify in high trust teams:
    • They begin with some social interaction
    • There are clear goals for each member
    • Members are positive, enthusiastic, and focus on an action orientation in communications

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

building trust virtually
Building Trust Virtually
  • Establish trust through performance consistency
    • Rapid response to team members (return emails, task completion)
    • Set strong norms around communication
    • Team leader role in reinforcing interactions

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

virtual team trust performance consistency
Virtual Team Trust“Performance Consistency”
  • When you are working with people you never see, you can develop trust, but you must respond to that person promptly & consistently
  • Trust has been built through the task-based relationship that has evolved to other levels
  • You gain the trust in people when they deliver what they promise, when all are contributing to the same idea and goal
      • Source: Five Challenges to Virtual Team Success: Lessons From Sabre, Inc. Kirkman, Rosen, Gibson, McPherson. (2002) Academy of Management Executive, 16, 67-80.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

swift trust meyerson weick and kramer 1996
Swift Trust Meyerson, Weick, and Kramer(1996)
  • Swift trust is a concept relating to temporary teams whose existence is formed around a clear purpose and common task with a finite life span.
  • Its elements include a willingness to suspend doubt about whether others who are "strangers" can be counted on in order to get to work on the group\'s task...
  • Has to be encouraged by the manager

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

implementation of virtual teams
Implementation of Virtual Teams
  • Must set out a clear business reason for the team
  • Team must understand its mission/purpose
  • Team members must develop a sense of interdependence
  • Must have accountability and rewards for team members
    • Sources: Attaran & Attaran, 2003; Kezsbom, 2000; Redman & Sankar, 2003

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

individual performance
Individual Performance
  • Potential for effort withholding behaviours (social loafing); can be minimized by building strong team identity
  • Members with high degree of centrality to the team and those that are information contributors are expected to be highest performers (Ahuja, Galletta, & Carley, 2003)
  • Members able to commit more resources are likely to be higher performers (Ahuja et al., 2003)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

dealing with motivational problems in virtual teams
Dealing with Motivational Problems in Virtual Teams
  • Share your experience of dealing with a motivational problem (social loafing, inequity, etc) in a virtual team.
  • What was the nature of the problem?
  • Was it corrected/resolved and how?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

leadership challenges
Leadership challenges
  • Make personal contact to share information and get to know each other
  • understand individual roles
  • establish clear objectives
  • decide who does what
  • agree on methods and levels of communication.
      • Establishing these rules for communication and knowledge sharing at the outset is crucial for success,"
      • Martin Galpin, managing psychologist at Pearn Kandola.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

leadership challenges1
Leadership challenges
  • Trust individuals
  • Measure outputs not processes
  • Maximise lines of communication
  • Maintain regular face-to-face contact

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

behavioural invisibility
Behavioural Invisibility
  • A minimum of two weeks before CMC relationships are as socially grounded as F2F relationships
  • The use of richer media does help when establishing and building relationships
  • Trust, a critical factor in influencing group effectiveness, is more readily generated in high-quality, media-rich forms of communication
  • Effective communication tools and channels help team members to avoid misinterpreting
  • ‘Silence’ – or non-response to communication (email, voice mail, etc.) can be very damaging to virtual team effectiveness as it leads individuals to misattribute explanations for this silence.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

remote management
Remote Management
  • Isolation
    • Out of sight out of mind
    • Regular phone calls (daily/weekly/conference)
    • Give them reasons/excuses to call you e.g.:
      • To celebrate successes or get guidance
      • To review an activity or have a moan (& plan future remedy)
  • Ad hoc communication is harder
    • Communication requires more structure and planning
    • but do ad hoc meetings or calls too
  • Face to face communications are less frequent
    • Use the phone more
    • Use other communication more (video conferencing, web, email, SMS)
    • Have regular face-to-face meetings

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

remote management1
Remote Management
  • Relationships are harder to build & maintain
    • Use phone, visits, emails etc to build rapport
    • Have regular social or team events
    • Meet for meals, drinks 1 to 1
    • Talk about the teleworking before talking about results…
  • Less team spirit
    • Have regular team-events
    • Have team newsletters/competitions etc
    • Create phone/email peer support groups
    • Team bonuses to encourage and reward team-working
    • Team web/intranet sites

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

remote management2
Remote Management
  • Harder for staff to remain motivated
    • Need to clarify expectations for time, support & development more clearly
  • Pace of work is self-directed
    • Constant awareness of results (not “big brother”)
    • Use coaching calls & results-reporting
  • Productivity/quality decreases
    • Results-oriented delegation & management
    • Fun/competitions/prizes
    • Monitoring work-rate and process is difficult
    • Distance means you need to delegate more – especially results-oriented tasks (not task/process)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

remote management3
Remote Management
  • Staff development is harder, so retention is harder
    • Clear structured, development plans, including objectives & support
    • Regular review meetings (minimum quarterly)
    • Spend time with teams locally & regularly
    • Tax issues

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what motivates
What motivates...?
  • Work in three groups
  • Identify top motivators for...
    • Group 1: Front line staff
    • Group 2: Middle management
    • Group 3: Senior management
  • Be prepared to share your thoughts
  • 5 minutes

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

motivation maslow s hierarchy of needs
MotivationMaslow’s Hierarchy of needs

Milestone achievements

Personal growth,

career development,

this job matters

Self

actualisation

Y

Motivators

Empowerment,

responsibility

Self esteem

Recognition, influence

Esteem from others

Team spirit

Social belonging

Job security

Hygiene

factors

X

Shelter & safety

Pay

Physiological needs (food & water)

expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory

Expectancy theory – Vroom

  • Valence (value I put on it)
    • Is it worth doing?
  • Expectancy (relationship between Effort I make and Performance achieved)
    • Does hard work make a difference?
  • Instrumentality (the extent to which my Performance determines the Reward I get)
    • Do I get rewarded for going the extra mile?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

problems of inequity
Problems of Inequity
  • Equity Theory:
  • Am I being treated fairly in comparison with others?
    • People strive to maintain a ratio of their outcomes (rewards) to their own inputs (contributions)
    • equal to the outcomes/input ratio of others whom they compare themselves
  • Beware of inequities in rewards among team members

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

equity theory
Equity Theory

Pay, benefits,

opportunities, etc.

the same,

more or less

OUTCOME

INPUTS

OUTCOME

INPUTS

< = >

?

effort, ability,

experience etc.

A person evaluates fairness by comparing his/her ratio with others

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

overreward vs underreward inequity

Outcomes

Outcomes

Overreward vs Underreward Inequity

Inputs

Inputs

Inputs

Inputs

Outcomes

Overreward

Inequity

Outcomes

Underreward

Inequity

Comparison with

Others

You

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

equity sensitivity types
Equity Sensitivity: Types
  • Benevolents
    • Tolerant of being underrewarded
  • Equity Sensitives
    • Want ratios to be equal
  • Entitleds
    • Prefer receiving proportionately more than others

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

are there limits
Are there limits?
  • Qualitative capacity
    • Work must be stretching but not intimidating
  • Quantitative capacity
    • Too little can be as bad as too much
  • Job satisfaction
    • The job must be seen as worthwhile
  • Challenge
    • the job should provide interesting challenge

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the customer is always the customer
The customer is always.. the customer

Rule No.1

The customer is always right

Rule No.2

If the customer is wrong…

refer to Rule No.1

richer sounds
Richer Sounds
  • 200 stores in UK and Western Europe
  • Specialising in good value HIFI and Home Cinema
  • Highest turnover per square metre of any shop in the world - Guinness Book of Records
  • Shrinkage: half the industry average (1% is worth £1m pa)
  • Absenteeism: 1-2% (UK average 4-5%)
  • ‘Colleagues’ not staff
  • ‘Colleague Support’ not Human Resources

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

richer way principles
Richer Way Principles
  • To provide second to none service and value for our customers
  • To provide ourselves with secure, well paid jobs, working in a stimulating, equal opportunities environment
  • To be profitable to ensure our long term growth and survival

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

richer sounds stores
Richer Sounds Stores
  • Bright environment
  • Free vending machine for all
  • Lollipops for children
  • Photos of customers and staff on the walls
  • Plain English advice posters and leaflets
  • Not precious about the technology

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

richer s 10 customer service commandments
Richer’s 10 Customer Service Commandments
  • Get the greeting right. Don’t ignore the customer but don’t make them feel hassled.
  • Don’t be pushy. If the customer is unsure, invite them to go and think about it.
  • Browsers are welcome.
  • If the item the customer wants is not in stock, suggest another retailer who has it.
  • Use the customer’s name - and smile
  • Acknowledge customers who are queuing and apologise for keeping them waiting
  • The last minute spent with the customer is very important. Ensure the customer leaves with a good impression.
  • Under promise and over deliver
  • Encourage complaints and be grateful for the complaints you receive. Learn from them.
  • Don’t be discouraged when you get it wrong.
motivating staff fun
Motivating staff: FUN
  • Fun
    • Every month the 3 winning branches in customer service win the use of Bentley (or similar) for a month, complete with petrol
  • Holiday time
    • Holiday homes are available for staff and their families and also used for team events
  • Benefits & Incentives
    • Health care, product discounts, rewards
  • Training
    • Induction is at the chairman’s home with a disco in the evening
  • Working Hours
    • Hours are recorded, time & motion studies, training in time mgt
  • Stress Management
    • Good communication and freedom

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

motivating staff recognition
Motivating staff: RECOGNITION
  • Thank you notes
  • Small tokens of appreciation
    • Chocolates, flowers, etc.
  • Medals
    • Gold aeroplane badges for high flyers
  • MBWA
  • Five year club
    • Anniversary dinner
    • Weekend break together
    • 10 year cash gift
    • All staff get a birthday card and a cake

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

motivating staff rewards
Motivating staff: REWARDS
  • Customer feedback forms earn £5 for every ‘excellent’
  • Mystery shopper schemes earn £100 for each member of staff hitting the required number of correct procedures
  • £100 post dated cheque for anyone who stops smoking for a year
  • Sales staff are paid a low basic plus commission but without turnover targets
  • Profit sharing
    • Contribution bonus based on share of profit generated by the branch
    • Calculated weekly and paid in cash on a Saturday
    • Central functions paid quarterly
    • Different size of reward by level but not within level

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

motivating staff communication
Motivating staff: COMMUNICATION
  • All central support staff spend one week per year working in retail on the shop floor
  • And so do all the directors
  • Richer House is not a glamorous Head Office - the branches are the heroes
  • Video communication rather than emails or paper
  • 1-to-1 chats with all staff
  • Julian Richer spends half a day working in as many branches as he can in the run up to Christmas

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

motivating staff loyalty
Motivating staff: LOYALTY
  • 1% of profits goes into a hardship fund for staff to borrow - interest free
  • Promotion from within
  • Welcome back for those who left and want to return

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

measuring motivation
Measuring Motivation
  • Labour turnover
  • Absenteeism
  • Theft
  • Customer Service
  • Attitude Surveys
  • Motivation is an investment that pays off!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide50

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

cultural difference
Cultural Difference
  • Work in three groups
  • Each group to select one country/culture with which they have to interact
  • Define how this culture differs from the UK
  • How do you have to modify your approach?
    • Illustrate with a live practical roleplay example of a typically challenging interaction in the workplace
    • Marks will be given for good accents!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

value orientations
Value Orientations
  • A series of bipolar scales useful for measuring cultural orientations
  • Cultures are like continents... slowly but always moving
  • The meaning for individual countries and individual people will change over time
    • developed by Hofstede and Trompenaar
value orientations1
Value Orientations
  • Low vs High Context
  • Individualistic vs Collective
  • Power Distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Feminine vs Masculine
  • Short vs Long Term (time orientation)
  • Achieved vs Ascribed status
  • Universalism vs Particularism
slide55

Low vs High Context Communication

  • Low Context
    • Individualistic values
    • Self-face concern
    • Linear logic
    • Direct style
    • Person-oriented style
    • Speaker-oriented style
    • verbal-based understanding
      • Germany, USA, UK, Scandinavia, Germany
  • High Context
    • Group-oriented values
    • Mutual-face concern
    • Spiral logic
    • Indirect style
    • Status-oriented style
    • Self-effacement style
    • Context-based understanding
      • Middle east, Far East, Nigeria, Mexico
individual collectivism
Individual-Collectivism
  • Individualistic
    • ‘I’ identity, human rights
    • Autonomy, freedom
    • Individual goals,
    • Interindividual emphasis
    • New relations
    • Voluntary reciprocity
      • e.g. USA, UK, Australia, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, France, Germany
  • Collectivist
    • ‘We’ identity
    • Connection
    • Group goals
    • Intergroup emphasis
    • Stable relations
    • Obligatory reciprocity
      • e.g. Japan, China, West/East Africa, Ecuador, Panama
individual freedom
Individual Freedom

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

power distance
Power Distance
  • Small Power Distance
    • Emphasise equal distance
    • Individual credibility
    • Symmetrical interaction
    • Emphasise informality
    • Subordinates expect consultation
      • e.g. USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Sweden, Norway, Germany, Israel, Denmark
  • Large Power Distance
    • Emphasise power distance
    • Seniority, age, rank title
    • Assymetrical interaction
    • Emphasise formality
    • Expect directions
      • e.g. Japan, China, West/East Africa, Ecuador, Panama
uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance
  • Low uncertainty avoidance
    • Uncertainty is valued
    • Each case is different
    • Career changes
    • Encouragement of risk taking
    • Positive attitude to conflict
    • Expect and encourage innovation
      • e.g. USA, Australia, Canada, New Hong Kong, Singapore, Sweden, Norway, Sweden, Denmark
  • High uncertainty avoidance
    • Uncertainty is a threat
    • The rule is the rule
    • Career stability
    • Expect clear procedures
    • Conflict is negative
    • Preserve status quo
      • e.g. Japan, Spain, france, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Uruguay, Japan
feminine vs masculine cultures
Feminine vs Masculine cultures
  • Feminine cultures
    • Flexible sex roles
    • Emphasising nurturing
    • Quality of work life
    • Work to live
    • Environmental emphasis
      • e.g. Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Finland, Costa Rica
  • Masculine cultures
    • Complementary sex roles
    • Emphasising achievements
    • Economic growth
    • Live to work
    • Business performance emphasised
      • e.g. US, Japan, Austria, Italy, Mexico, Philippines
confucian dynamism short v long term
Confucian Dynamism: short v long term
  • Short term orientation
    • Personal survival
    • Personal respect
    • Individual face-saving
    • Short - medium term planning
    • Spending centred
    • Short - medium term outcomes
      • e.g. UK, USA, Canada, Nigeria, Pakistan
  • Long term orientation
    • Social order
    • Hierarchical respect
    • Collective face-saving
    • Long-term planning
    • Thrift centred
    • Long-term outcomes
      • e.g. China, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, Brazil
time orientation
Time orientation
  • Sequential time
    • Time is a race along a course
    • Chronos - the Greek god of clock time
      • Time waits for no man
      • Procrastination is the thief of time
      • Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today
  • Synchronous time
    • Time is a dance of fine coordinations
    • Kairos - the Greek god of time and opportunity
      • There is a tide in the affairs of men that taken in the flood leads on to fortune

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

monochronic m time vs polychronic p time
Monochronic ‘M-Time’ vs Polychronic ‘P-Time’
  • M Time
    • Clock time
    • Appointment concern
    • Segmented activities
    • Task-oriented
    • Achievement temp
    • Future-focused
    • Tangible outcomes
  • P Time
    • Situational time
    • Flexible timing
    • Simultaneous activities
    • Relationship-oriented
    • Experiential tempo
    • Past/present approach
    • Historical orientation
achieved ascribed status
Achieved - Ascribed Status
  • Achieved
    • What you’ve done
    • Actual achievements
    • Your track record
      • USA, Canada
  • Ascribed
    • Who you are
    • Your potential
    • Your connections
    • Your age
      • China, Japan

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

inner direction outer direction
Inner direction - Outer direction
  • Inner direction
    • Conscience
    • Convictions
      • all internal
  • Outer direction
    • Examples
    • Influence
      • all external

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

universalism particularism
Universalism - Particularism
  • Universalism
    • Rules
    • Codes
    • Laws
    • Generalisations
  • Particularism
    • Exceptions
    • Special circumstances
    • Unique relations

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

the accident dilemma
The accident dilemma
  • You were a passenger in a car driven by a close friend
  • He hit a pedestrian who suddenly stepped off the curb
  • Your friend was driving at 40mph in a 30mph zone
  • You are the only witness - the lawyer points out your ability to save your friend from serious consequences
  • What right has your friend to expect you to help him?
    • My friend has a definite right as a friend to expect me to testify that he was driving more slowly
    • My friend has some rights to expect me to testify to the lower speed
    • My friend has no right as a friend to expect me to testify to a lower speed

What would you vote for?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the accident dilemma1
The accident dilemma

Derived from: Fons Trompenaars

transcultural competencies stella ting toomey
Transcultural Competencies(Stella Ting-Toomey)
  • Tolerance for ambiguity - in confusing situations
  • Open mindedness - non judgmental responses
  • Flexibility - ability to shift frame of reference
  • Respectfulness - to others and their values
  • Adaptability - willingness to try things out
  • Sensitivity - verbal and non verbal sensitivity
  • Creativity - ability to think outside the cultural box

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the menu1
The Menu

Review

Managing

Remote or project

teams & suppliers

Coaching

high performance

Action Planning

Evening

Morning

Afternoon

Day 1

Managing Change

Day 2

Meal &

Presentation

Delegation & Empowerment

managing change
Managing Change

What is change?Causes, Types & Scale

Psychological

challenge of

change

Change Project

Planning &

Management

Embedding a

Change culture

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide72
If anything is certain,

it is that change is certain.

The world we are planning for today

will not exist in this form tomorrow

Philip Crosby

Quality guru

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

this is a challenge
This is a challenge

‘There is nothing more difficult to carry out,

nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle,

than to initiate a new order of things’

Machiavelli

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

change management defined
Change Management defined

‘the process of helping organisations to introduce change successfully’

part of Organisational Development (OD)

A discipline

but not a business department

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

why change management matters
Why change management matters...
  • remaining static is not an option
  • change is inevitable
  • poor management of change can destroy its effectiveness
  • 70% of change management programmes fail to deliver promised benefits

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

change
Change!
  • We have lived through a year of great change. Against this backdrop...
  • Group 1
    • What are the generic causes of change within organisations/industries?
  • Group 2
    • What types of change do organisations have to cope with?
  • Group 3
    • What are the stages in the reaction individuals/teams have to change?
  • Group 4
    • How can a manager help staff through the challenge of change?
  • Use JPM’s situation to provide examples in answer to your questions (Flipchart: 10 mins)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

philip crosby quality guru
Philip CrosbyQuality guru

The role of the leader

Leadership produces change

That is its primary function

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

causes of change
Causes of Change
  • Social & demographic change
    • Ageing population
  • Technological change
    • MP3 vs CD
  • Economic
    • Credit crunch
  • Environmental change
    • Global warming
  • Political forces
    • Left vs right
  • Legal changes
    • FSA, regulations
  • Competitive forces
    • New entrants
  • Ethical forces
    • CSR, BodyShop

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

new organisational structures
New organisational structures
  • Flatter organisational structures
    • networking
  • Virtual organisations
    • Matrix management, Outsourcing
  • Diversity
    • Cultural complexity
  • Globalisation
    • Everywhere simultaneously, offshoring

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

types degrees of changes
Types / Degrees of Changes

Radical change

Adaptive change

Innovative change

low

high

Kreitner, Kinicki, Buelens

leadership management change

Innovation

Low level creativity

Transactional Management

Adaptation

High level creativity

Transformational Leadership

Large scale

cultural change

Changes to

Group Behaviour

Changes to

Group Task

Organisation wide

cultural change

After Michael Kirton, 1989

Leadership, Management & Change

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

leadership management change ll

Small-scale change, stable environment

Low level creativity

Transactional Management

Turbulent environment, Large scale transformation

High level creativity

Transformational Leadership

After Michael Kirton, 1989

Leadership, Management & Change ll

Level: the organisation

Focus: culture

Approach: Emergent change

Level: the organisation

Focus: structures & processes

Approach: bold stroke

Slow transformation

Innovation

Slow change

Rapid transformation

Adaptation

Rapid change

Level: individual/group

Focus: attitudes/behaviour

Approach: planned change

Level: individual/group

Focus: tasks & procedures

Approach: Tayloristic/Kaizen

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

how do we react to change
How do we react to change?

‘Just call me Cleopatra

I’m the Queen of Denial’

the parable of the frog
The Parable of the Frog

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the parable of the frog1
The Parable of the Frog
  • If you put a frog into a pot of boiling water...
    • It will leap out right away to escape the danger
  • But, if you put a frog in a kettle of cold water
    • and gradually heat the kettle until it starts boiling
    • the frog will not become aware of the threat until it is too late - and will die

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the parable of the frog2
The Parable of the Frog
  • The frog\'s survival instincts are geared towards detecting sudden changes.
  • This parable is often used to illustrate how humans have to be careful to watch slowly changing trends in the environment
    • not just the sudden changes
  • Its a warning to keep us paying attention not just to obvious threats but to more slowly developing ones

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

responses to change
Responses to change

Those who let it happen

Those who make it happen

Those who try to stop it happening

Those who wonder ‘what happened?’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

reaction to change
Reaction to change
  • Identify the greatest change in your life - over which you had no control
  • How did you react?
  • What did you say?
  • What did you do?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

psychodynamic approach
Psychodynamic approach
  • Recognition that our emotional responses go through a cycle as we cope with changes...
  • Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’ research
    • ‘On Death and Dying’ (1969)
  • Five stage cycle of coping.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

kubler ross model
Kubler-Ross model

Stage 1

DENIAL

Stage 5

ACCEPTANCE

Stage 2

ANGER

Stage 4

DEPRESSION

Stage 3

BARGAINING

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

case study in change
Case study in change

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

case study in change1
Case study in change
  • Royal Holloway College, founded 1886
    • One of the first women’s higher education institutions
  • Became part of the University of London in 1900
  • Co-educational from 1945
  • Merged with Bedford College in 1985 for financial and scale reasons with the former Bedford College site sold
  • The identity that emerged tried to please everyone...

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

case study managing identity change
Case study: Managing identity change

ROYAL HOLLOWAY AND

BEDFORD NEW COLLEGE

University of London

case study
Case study
  • By 1991, the two colleges had merged successfully
  • But the image was confused and the college was barely known
    • A Surrey local government survey failed to notice it existed...
  • The time was right to develop a new identity
    • Change the name
    • Modernise the branding

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

reaction to organisational change
Reaction to organisational change
  • feel criticised
  • lose trust of our senior management
  • like the old ways
  • anxious about our ability to cope
  • insecure about the future.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

cycle of coping carnall 1990
Cycle of copingCarnall, 1990

Stage 1

DENIAL

Stage 5

INTERNALISATION

Stage 2

DEFENCE

Stage 4

ADAPTATION

Stage 3

DISCARDING

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

stage 1 denial
Stage 1: Denial
  • shock
  • sense that change is unnecessary
  • belief that it will not actually happen
  • group cohesion increases
  • performance stable.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

stage 2 defence
Stage 2: Defence
  • As intentions become concrete, people act to defend themselves
  • defence of jobs and way they have carried them out, bargaining to retain status quo
  • sense of personal criticism
  • loss of self-esteem, motivation & performance.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

stage 3 discarding
Stage 3: Discarding
  • Realisation that change is necessary
  • sense of inevitability
  • begin to assimilate the new situation
  • some improvement of self-esteem as people begin to get involved in the change
  • performance still declining.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

stage 4 adaptation
Stage 4: Adaptation
  • coming to terms with new systems & processes
  • getting involved in fine tuning change aids improving self-esteem
  • motivation improving
  • performance improvement lags.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

rbs principles of change
RBS Principles of Change
  • Compelling reason for change
  • Clear vision
  • Context
  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Emotional buy-in
  • Embedding of change

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

stage 5 internalisation
Stage 5: internalisation
  • behaviour changes now habitualised
  • improved self-esteem
  • improved motivation
  • performance improvements begin to materialise.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

a lesson from marketing adapter categories in the product diffusion process
A lesson from Marketing:Adapter categories in the product diffusion process

Time adoption of innovations

16%Laggards

2.5%Innovators

34%LateMajority

13.5%EarlyAdopters

34%EarlyMajority

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

103

other reasons for resistance
Other reasons for resistance

Source: Kanter, 1985

  • Loss of control
    • Too much is done to people, too little by them
  • Too much uncertainty
    • About next steps
  • Surprise, surprise!
    • Decisions spring full-blown without preparation
  • Costs of confusion
    • Too many simultaneous changes
  • Loss of face
    • Implied criticism of past performance/appoach.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

other reasons for resistance1
Other reasons for resistance

Source: Kanter, 1985

  • Concerns about competence
    • Anxiety about ability to perform with new systems
  • More work
    • Change requires more work, time, meetings, energy
  • Ripple effects
    • One change disrupts other, unrelated plans
  • Past resentments
    • Legacy of distrust
  • Real threats
    • Of job losses or other genuine pain.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the process of transition
The Process of Transition

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

managing people during change
Managing People During Change

Change is not easy. Change Management’s purpose is to minimize the breadth and depth of the “performance dip”

Managed Change

Unmanaged Change

Achieve Your Vision

Current State

+

Performance and Perceived Ability to Deal with Change

-

“Announcement”

#4 Rebuilding

#2 Loss

Time

#1 Shock/Denial

#3 Hope/ Readjustment

“Hang-In” Point

Persevere

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

how does this apply to you
How does this apply to you?
  • Work in small groups
  • Identify major work (or personal) changes in your life
  • How did these change cycles manifest themselves for you personally
  • Discuss examples
  • Be prepared to share notable issues that may have arisen

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

learning and change
Learning and change

conscious

incompetence

unconscious

incompetence

unconscious

competence

conscious

competence

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

kolb s learning cycle
Kolb’s learning cycle

Concrete

Experience

ACTIVIST

Reflective

observation

REFLECTOR

Practical

experimentation

PRAGMATIST

Theoretical

concepts

THEORIST

learning responses to change
Learning responses to change
  • A new piece of equipment or software has been installed.... do you....?
    • try it out
      • activist
    • watch as others show you how to use it
      • reflector
    • learn the background to it and similarities to other equipment
      • theorist
    • leave it alone until you can find a use for it
      • pragmatist

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

behavioural approaches to change
Behavioural approaches to change
  • Behaviour is the only thing that matters
  • Behaviour determines thinking
  • Condition behavioural change and you condition a change in thinking and attitude

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

managing change1
Managing Change
  • Against the background of continuous and often unpredicted change...
  • The variety of impacts it has
  • And the psychological challenges involved
  • How can management lead their teams through change?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide114

POWER

INTEREST

Monitor Closely

Keep

Satisfied

Keep

Informed

Manage

Closely

POWER/INTEREST Grid

HIGH

LOW

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

communication strategies
Communication Strategies
  • Imagine a change involving two departments from merging companies also being merged
  • How can you best communicate with the four categories?
  • Present in the form of a short dialogue

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

force field analysis kurt lewin

Opposing Forces

Driving Forces

Force Field Analysis Kurt Lewin

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

attitude support matrix
Attitude/Support Matrix

Attitude

Supporters

+ve

Neutrals

+/0

Resistors

-ve

Support

Critical

Important

Unnecessary

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

key questions
Key Questions
  • What are the goals of your key supporters and resistors?
  • What is their current level of power and interest?
  • How can the neutrals be mobilised and the resistors neutralised or assuaged?
  • What does this do to the viability of the project in its current form?
  • What are the contingency plans for failure?
  • Is it possible to take the project in stages?
  • Is it possible to attach the project to another better supported project?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • Non financial
    • feedback
    • coaching
    • can be positive or negative
  • Social reinforcement
    • praise & compliment
    • vs
    • naming & shaming

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

cognitive approaches to change
Cognitive approaches to change
  • Mental response is the only thing that matters
  • Thinking determines behaviour
  • Condition a change in thinking and attitude and you condition behavioural change

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

cognitive approaches to change1
Cognitive approaches to change

Results

Behaviour

Feelings

Beliefs and attitudes

Self concept and values

cognitive approaches to change2
Cognitive approaches to change

‘Better next

time’

‘I knew that would happen’

Repeating

past failures

Achievement

of goals

Results

Goal focused

Conditioned

by past

Behaviour

Confidence

Confidence

Feelings

Goals,

Potential

Grievances,

Limits

Beliefs and attitudes

Positive

‘can do’

Victim

of past

Self concept and values

cognitive change
Cognitive change
  • Visualisations
    • imagining the achievement of goals rather than failures
  • Reframing
    • Reducing the size of a threat by seeing it smaller
  • Rational Analysis
    • Objective analysis of threats and how to deal with them
  • Anchoring
    • Recalling past successes and the positive emotions they invoked

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the great debate
The great debate
  • You are leading a change management programme designed to create a culture of greater initiative, empowerment, customer service and innovation
  • Group 1: You believe the best strategy is to change staff’s views and beliefs - what would you do and why will it work?
  • Group 2: You believe the best strategy is to change processes - what would you do and why will it work?
  • 10 mins preparations - 5 minute debate

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

implementing change
Implementing Change

Awareness

Involvement

Commitment

The difference between commitment and involvement

is like a plate of bacon and eggs...

The chicken is involved

But the pig is committed....

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide126

COMMITMENT

ACCEPTANCE

COMMITMENT

UNDERSTANDING

AWARENESS

Implementation

UNAWARE

TIME

Inform

Clarify

Convince

Involve

Link between perceptions & communication

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

but the reaction options are many
But the reaction options are many
  • Positive
    • Acceptance
    • Involvement
    • Champion
    • Shock
  • Negative
      • Initiator
      • Resistance
      • Ignorance
      • Tolerance
      • Acquiesence
      • GroupThink

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

acceptance option
Acceptance option
  • + This approach suggests that you have understood the reasons for the change taking place and accept what is happening
  • - You are doing what you are told but not being actively involved in the process
  • + You are safe but may need to be prepared to look out for the opportunities before they pass you by.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

involvement option
Involvement option
  • + You are part of the change process
  • + You are actively involved in making the change happen as a result of the project team
  • +/-This may mean anything from full time membership of a project team to having an occasional part of play
  • + The success of the change will be important to you personally.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

champion option
Champion option
  • + One of the leaders of change
  • + You devote a lot of your time to the change project and are an advocate of the process
  • - Danger that you are seen as a ‘company’ person and viewed with bemusement by colleagues less supportive of the change process
  • + Benefit to be gained from involvement in a high profile change project – provided that it delivers.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

initiator option
Initiator option
  • + You are a source of the ideas and drive that has made the project happen
  • + While this is usually the province of a more senior manager, it is valuable to be known as someone with ideas and initiative
  • - But while it may impress the management above you, your own team may find your approach intimidating.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

shock option
Shock option
  • - Rabbit in the headlights
  • - Transfixed by events
  • - But unable to understand, take action or continue functioning
  • - Forgivable as a momentary response, disastrous as a continuous position.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

resistance option
Resistance option
  • - Machine smashing strategy of the luddites
  • - Trade unions protecting their members that they have damaged their organisations in the long term
  • - Politically dangerous as it puts the individual in a very exposed position
  • - You have to be prepared for the consequences and be sure it is worth the price.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

ignorance option
Ignorance option
  • - The strategy of the ostrich
  • - Just as some new technologies turn out to be blind alleys, so some change fail to take root
  • + Avoid getting involved in something that turns out to be a mere distraction
  • - If the change does take hold, then ignorance is no defense against its potential impact.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

tolerance option
Tolerance option
  • +/- Tacit acceptance of change
  • +/- You work around the change, only responding to it when it affects you directly
  • + Advantage is that you can continue to function well
  • - But lack of direct involvement may mean you miss out on some opportunities that the change may create.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

aquiescence option
Aquiescence option
  • +/- A willingness to participate in the change but without any real wholehearted involvement
  • +/- You are a passenger in the process
  • +/- There is no danger of being left behind but no real commitment to what is going on.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

groupthink option
Groupthink option
  • +/- Allowing the overall group view to overcome your own
  • + Useful if it is positive
  • - Less so if it is not.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what are the typical pitfalls
What are the typical pitfalls?
  • Multiple transitions
    • Too much at the same time
  • Incomplete transitions
    • Overtaken by events, lost impetus
  • Uncertain future states
    • Lack of confidence in or knowledge of the future
  • Mid transition blues
    • All chaos and no benefit

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

history of change management
History of change management
  • Transformational change
    • Jack Welch leadership
  • Bottom up change
    • Labour-management partnerships, TQM
  • Reengineering
    • US quantum leaps vs Japanese kaizen
  • Externally induced change
    • Envronmental change: Competitors, legislation, etc.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

history of change management1
History of change management
  • Lewin’s three phase model (1952)
    • Unfreeze – change - refreeze
  • Change agents (1960s)
    • External/Internal consultants
  • Organisational culture (1980s)
    • Cultural change
  • Socio-technical theory
    • Bottom up change
  • Unplanned change
    • garbage can theory

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 basics of change d d warwick
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

the reasons for change
The reasons for change
  • Our morning session yesterday established the various drivers for change
  • So we know we have to change
    • but to what?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 basics of change d d warwick1
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

2 establishing the results required
2. Establishing the results required
  • precise definition is very important
  • focus on outcomes not activities
  • review progress towards results at milestones

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 basics of change d d warwick2
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

3 planning management of change
3. Planning & management of change
  • Identifying stages in change
  • Making the change a project
  • recognition of the principles of project management

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 basics of change d d warwick3
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

4 involving stakeholders
4. Involving stakeholders
  • Building the change team
  • Involving and understanding people who are affected by or interested in the change
  • Using senior management to lead the charge
  • increasing understanding, commitment & ownership

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide149

Resistance types & levels

Distribution of resistance

Individual

Group

Organisational

Covert

Demotivation, covert underperformance, lack of commitment

Displacement, sabotage activity, other dysfunctional behaviour

Manifestation of resistance

Direct group resistance, projected group resistance, declared underperformance

Inter-group conflict, extreme in-group conformity pressures, groups actively pursuing their own agendas

Industrial relations action, work to rule, strikes, inter-organisational resistance by regional/national industrial action

Overt

overcoming resistance
Overcoming Resistance

Communication

Participation

Facilitation

Negotiation

Manipulation

Coercion

Potential Methods

Increasing strength of approach

•Exploring areas of resistance

•Persuading for the commitment to change

•Facilitating attitude & behaviour change

•Potential use of 3rd party arbitration

•Formal and informal negotiations to overcome resistance

•Use of position power to manipulate compliance

•Combination of actual and potential threats with actual and potential rewards for compliance

•Explicit or implicit coercion

•Threat behaviour without compensating for rewards for compliance

•Written notice of termination of contract failing compliance

•Provide information on the change

•Present a rationale for the proposals

•Educate employees of the benefits to allay fears

•Challenge misrepresentations of the change process

•Involvement of staff groups affected by the change

•Participation in decision-making either core or peripheral

•Gaining wider commitment to the change process

change leadership

Provide leading through change 1-2 hour briefing sessions Create formal and informal communication forums to involve employees and get their feedback

Create mentoring relationships for key staff

Reinforce performance expectations

Change Leadership

Meet with top team to agree the push-pull messages to communicate

Determine change agents and high potential/business critical employees- allocate key high profile roles to these people. Brief change agents on their role

Determine loose cannons and bystanders -look to move their position to champions with the help of the champions/change agents

Reaffirm to Managers their role through the change. Brief Managers on the leading through change guide

6 basics of change d d warwick4
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

5 monitor feedback
5. Monitor & feedback
  • Checking on achievement of results
  • fine-tuning programme
  • celebration of successes

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 basics of change d d warwick5
6 basics of changeD D Warwick

1.Identifying the reasons for change

2. Establishing the results required

3. Planning and management

4. Involving stakeholders

5. Monitor & feedback

6. Structure & support

6 structural support
6. Structural support
  • mission statement
  • goals & values
  • organisation structure
  • reward systems
  • training

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

embedding change
Embedding change
  • Strong commitment and leadership
  • creating an environment conducive to change (the learning organisation)
  • change is painful and involves failures as well as successes
  • recognising the need to change is easier than making the change

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

case study managing identity change1
Case study: Managing identity change

ROYAL HOLLOWAY AND

BEDFORD NEW COLLEGE

University of London

project principles
Project principles

A new identity for RHBNC

  • What were the project’s goals and objectives?
  • How would you obtain project sponsorship?
  • Which stakeholders are important?
  • Who should be on the project team?
what actually happened
What actually happened
  • sold concept to principal and key decisionmakers
  • created project group (headed by senior academic)
  • established budget & brief
  • identified suppliers (formal beauty parade)
  • research and initial designs
  • testing and acceptance (the petition!)
  • implementation (publications unit)
case study managing identity change2
Case study: Managing identity change

ROYAL HOLLOWAY AND

BEDFORD NEW COLLEGE

University of London

change as a constant
Change as a constant
  • While discreet changes can be managed as projects
  • The long term development of any organisation must recognise that being able to cope with continuous change is vital
  • The holy grail of this approach?
  • The Learning Organisation

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the learning organisation
The Learning Organisation
  • An organisation that learns and encourages learning among its people
  • It promotes exchange of information between employees hence creating a more knowledgable workforce
  • This produces a very flexible organisation where people will accept and adapt to new ideas and changes through a shared vision

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

golden rules
Golden rules
  • Avoid quick-fix short term solutions
  • Focus on a few, high impact changes
  • Expect and allow for resistance
  • Create alignment between systems, processes and values
  • You get what you measure and reward, you deserve what you tolerate

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

thinking on change
Thinking on change
  • Gandhi
    • "You must be the change you wish to see in the world"
  • Jack Welch
    • "We have to get everybody in the organization involved. If we do that, the best ideas rise to the top"
  • American Proverb
    • "You can\'t jump a twenty-foot chasm in two ten-foot leaps”

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

driving change
Driving change

Awareness of current position

Reward

Shock

Knowing how

Desire to change

Change

the menu2
The Menu

Review

Managing

Remote or project

teams & suppliers

Coaching

high performance

Action Planning

Evening

Morning

Afternoon

Day 1

Managing Change

Day 2

Meal &

Presentation

Delegation & Empowerment

delegation
Delegation

‘the process of hanging on tight with an open hand ... of sharing leadership and developing solution-oriented people\'

‘Giving up work you like but not giving up accountability for its completion’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

but remember
But remember...
  • The best executive is one who has sense enough to pick good people to do what needs to be done & the self-restraint to keep from meddling with them.
    • adapted from Theodore Roosevelt

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

delegation as motivation
Delegation as motivation

‘Leaders are remembered because they challenge their people.

Managers are often forgotten because they let their people get away with second best.’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

delegation according to dilbert
Delegation according to Dilbert

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

delegation as method
Delegation as Method
  • Delegation is not just assigning work, it should also include:
    • Transferring responsibility and authority
    • Coaching
    • Showing trust
    • Motivating the delegate
    • Monitoring
    • Follow up

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

deciding the levels of delegation
Deciding the levels of delegation
  • Different levels of delegation depending on:
    • Experience of delegate
    • Criticality of task
    • Time pressure

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of delegation
Levels of Delegation
  • “Do exactly what I say”
    • No delegated freedom at all
  • “Look at this and tell me what you think. I’ll decide”
    • Delegate investigates and analyses, but does not recommend
  • “Tell me what the options are. I’ll let you know, whether you can continue”
    • Delegate gives recommendations, but delegator decides

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of delegation1
Levels of Delegation
  • You decide, but wait for my approval before you proceed
    • Delegate needs approval, but is trusted to judge the options
  • You decide and let me know your decision, then go ahead, unless I say ‘no’
    • Delegate begins to control action, but is still subject to the approval of the delegator

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of delegation2
Levels of Delegation
  • “You decide and take action, but let me know what you did”
    • Delegate controls action, but delegator is still holding on to control and responsibility
  • “You decide what actions need to be taken and manage the situation accordingly. It is your area of responsibility now”
    • Delegate is completely empowered and assumes responsibility for a specific area; delegator retains general responsibility

COMPLETE EMPOWERMENT

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of delegation3
Levels of Delegation

Complete

Empower-

ment

You decide and

take action, but

let me know

what you did

You decide and let me know your decision, then go ahead, unless I say ‘no’

You decide, but wait for my

approval before you proceed

Tell me what the options are.

I’ll let you know, whether you can continue

Look at this and tell me what you think

Do exactly what I say

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

delegation shackleton s way
Delegation: Shackleton’s way

“In publicly turning over the reins, Shackleton left no doubt about

his deputy’s authority.”

delegation shackleton s way1
Delegation: Shackleton’s way
  • Empower the team leaders so they have the authority to handle their own group, but keep an eye on the details. Never let yourself be surprised by problems down the road.
  • Give a show of confidence in those acting in your stead. It’s important that your support staff maintain in your absence the same level of competency you set.
    • Shackleton’s Way. Margot Morrell , Stephanie Capparell
slide180

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide181

To what degree did delegation/empowerment

take place during this exercise?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

monitor control
Monitor & control
  • Diarise receipt of deliverables
  • Review regularly
  • Provide coaching help
  • Be prepared to amend plans
  • Praise achievements
  • Be available
  • Be positive about mistakes
  • Never take the work away!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

7 step delegation process
7 Step Delegation Process
  • Identify the Task
  • Select the Delegate
  • Brief the Delegate
  • Assess the Delegate’s Response
  • Support, Monitor & Control
  • Delivery and De-Brief (Recognition)
  • Assessing Impact

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

1 identifying the task
1. Identifying the Task
  • Delegator must:
    • Have a positive attitude towards delegation (not just getting rid of work)
    • Confirm that task is suitable for delegation
    • See delegation as a means of empowering people, motivating them and helping them improve
    • Think in terms of “What opportunities exist for delegating part or all of a task?
    • Take the time to delegate properly

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

1 identifying the task1
1. Identifying the Task
  • Identify the tasks to be delegated in terms of:
    • Complexity
    • Criticality
    • Confidentiality/security
    • Authority
    • Skills available
    • Time constraints
    • Development potential
  • Decide on the appropriate level of delegation

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what can you delegate
What can you delegate?
  • 3 groups:
    • Directors
    • Managers
    • Supervisors
  • Review the list of tasks
  • Let’s see which ones you can delegate – at least in part!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what can you delegate at least in part
What can you delegate, at least in part?
  • Business Planning
  • Setting up Induction for a new Team member
  • Analysis of a major error involving a client
  • Attending an industry conference
  • Joining the board of a local school/college as a business representative
  • Analysing sickness records
  • Joining a project group on Performance Related Pay
  • Investigating and mproving a process

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

2 selecting the delegate
2. Selecting the delegate
  • Case study example: You are a manager with four team supervisors reporting directly to you.
  • Following a recent series of problems, you wish to produce a report analysing the process involved and recommending improvements
  • Rather than do this yourself, you decide to delegate it to a team member
  • All of these people are equally busy
  • Who would you give the work to?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

slide189
Jane-Marie Kerr
  • Age: 38; joined company 10 years ago; in job 5 years
  • Understands industry very well; has become stale lately; elder statesperson of the Department; usual deputy when you are out of the office; adequate report writing skills

Gert Frobe

  • Age: 26; joined as graduate 4 years ago; in job 12 months;
  • Excellent writing skills; keen on projects; blue-eyed boy as always willing to have a go at new tasks and usually does them well; viewed by many as a future senior manager

Peter Venckman

  • Age: 30; joined at 18; in this job 3.5 years
  • Weaker written and PC skills; very good with people; high standards of accuracy and reliability; regarded as steady but unexceptional; already feels that he is being overtaken by others.. and events

Alison Hynde

  • Age: 25; joined company 1.5 years ago from a competitor; in this job 12 months;
  • Good analytical and written skills; very ambitious and prone to treading on colleague\'s toes; less good with detail; experience from elsewhere is proving valuable in improving processes in department
2 selecting the delegate1
2. Selecting the Delegate
  • Criteria for selecting a delegate:
    • Existing skills/aptitude
    • Motivational value
    • Time/availability
    • Trust
    • Equality of opportunity
    • Strategic development relevance
  • Avoid always choosing the “superstars”
  • Give everyone a chance according to their levels of competence

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

to whom do we delegate
To whom do we delegate?

Top

SHOULD?

DO?

Satisfactory

Weak

3 briefing the delegate
3. Briefing the Delegate
  • You have selected Peter Venckman to lead the analysis.
  • Peter is primarily an analytical amiable. He is good at data analysis and problem solving but has some difficulty enthusing others.
  • Group 1: You are the manager. How would you brief Peter to give him a fighting chance to make a good job of the task?
  • Group 2 You are Peter. What would the briefing process need to cover to give you a fighting chance to make a good job of the task?
  • Flipchart (10 mins)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

3 briefing the delegate1
3. Briefing the Delegate
  • Give the delegate sufficient, but not too much, detail
  • For complex tasks, provide a clear written description of the task and support documentation
  • Explain:
    • Context of task
    • Definition of the ‘problem’
    • Expected outcome
    • Preferred timescales
    • Scope & Quality
    • Levels of responsibility and authority
    • Benefit to the delegate
    • How you will measure job is being done well

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

3 briefing the delegate2
3. Briefing the delegate
  • Delegator
    • Why task is needed
    • Required outcome
    • Preferred timescale
    • Scope & Quality
    • Level of personal responsibility
    • Benefit to delegate
  • Delegate
    • Understanding
    • Commitment
    • Method
    • Help needed

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

4 assess the delegate s response
4. Assess the Delegate’s Response
  • Verify that the delegate has understood the task
  • Ensure the delegate’s commitment
  • Offer your help
  • Use active listening and ask questions to test understanding
  • Agree your involvement in the task
  • Ask for an action plan

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

firming up the action plan
Firming up the Action Plan
  • Clear deadlines
  • Establish review points
  • Get the delegate to summarise exactly what he or she is actually going to do
  • Confirm the support you will be providing (and the standards you expect)
  • Communicate the method of checking and control – failure to agree this in advance will make monitoring seem like lack of trust

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

5 support monitor control
5. Support, Monitor & Control
  • Peter has begun work on the task
  • He has submitted a draft analysis and report to you for discussion
  • It is detailed but has only analysed the process and not produced any real solutions
  • You are meeting with him
  • How would you approach it?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

5 support monitor control1
5. Support, Monitor & Control
  • Think about who else needs to know & inform them (other managers, peers)
  • Ensure that the delegate uses the authority given to him
  • Regular one-to-one reviews
  • Be available
  • Be positive about mistakes

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

5 support monitor control2
5. Support, Monitor & Control
  • Amend plans, if necessary
  • Praise achievements
  • Provide coaching
  • Warn about politics, protocol, sensitive issues
  • Don’t take the work away!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

6 delivery and de brief
6. Delivery and De-Brief
  • Review task against plan prior to final delivery
  • Focus on the big issues, rather than criticising small details
  • Coach any final improvements to the work
  • When receiving the final deliverable, give the delegate:
    • Recognition for the positive parts
    • Constructive criticism for the parts that need improvement
  • Keep your feedback positive (“good job; next time you can do it even better by…”)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

giving critical feedback
Giving Critical Feedback
  • Timely (but avoiding the heat of the moment)
  • Specific (so they know what they’ve done)
  • Proportional (avoid the big dump)
  • Methods:
    • Sandwich effect: praise/criticism/praise
    • Empathy: ‘We all struggle with this’
    • Evidence based:
      • When you… (specific example)
      • The effect is… (practical consequences)
      • The affect is… (how others feel about it)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

7 assess impact
7. Assess Impact
  • After completing the delegation, analyze how the process was managed, specifically:
    • How effective was the delegation?
    • What did the delegate learn from the experience?
    • How well was the process managed?
    • What did the delegator learn from the experience?
    • What could be improved the next time?
  • Based on this assessment, the delegator may want to change approach in the future

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

managers are often delegates
Managers are often delegates
  • Sometimes managers play role of delegator and delegate
  • Effective delegation is based on a dialogue, in which each side must play his part
  • Without the active participation and feedback of the delegate, the delegator cannot be successful
  • The delegate must provide honest feedback to the delegator and not just accept any delegated task, regardless of the conditions
  • Delegation must be based on mutual agreement

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

role of the delegate
Role of the Delegate
  • Delegates should see delegated work as an opportunity to prove and improve their skills
  • Delegate must:
    • Be willing to accept responsibility for the task
    • Understand the task being delegated
    • Commit to respect the agreed conditions of the delegation
    • Be open and honest about his abilities to perform the task (or not)
    • Listen actively and ask questions
    • Have sufficient authority to perform the task

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

empowerment
Empowerment

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

defining empowerment
Defining Empowerment
  • Cambridge dictionary:
  • To empower is...
  • To give someone official authority
  • or the freedom to do something

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

why empowerment can fail
Why empowerment can fail
  • Lip service only
  • No clear boundaries
  • Micromanagement
  • Abdication of responsibility and accountability
  • Barriers impeding empowered behaviour

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

advantages of empowerment
Advantages of Empowerment
  • Increases the involvement, motivation and commitment of staff
  • Increases a manager’s ability to accomplish tasks by ensuring the support and contributions of staff
  • Raises competence level among empowered staff
  • “Energizes” the organisation – commitment is contagious

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

preconditions for empowerment
Preconditions for Empowerment
  • Reciprocal acceptance of empowerment:
    • Manager must be willing to delegate authority
    • Staff must be willing to accept being empowered
  • Empowerment is not binary; rather it is a question of degree - in how far is a person empowered?
  • Empowerment must be implemented gradually and within limits

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of empowerment
Levels of Empowerment
  • No Discretion
    • Task is designed by someone other than the employee, who has no decision-making power in content or context, i.e., no empowerment
  • Task Setting
    • Employee is given a lot of responsibility for job content, but little for context; management defines the goals and the employee is empowered to find the best way to reach them
  • Participatory Empowerment
    • Team is given some decision-making power for content and context, e.g., problem identification, alternative search and recommending best alternative in content

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

levels of empowerment1
Levels of Empowerment
  • Mission Defining
    • Employees are empowered to decide on job context, but not content (e.g., changing supplier, whether to outsource or not)
  • Self-Management
    • Employees are given total decision-making authority for both job content and context
  • Ask delegate what level of authority they feel comfortable with
    • Remember people are often capable of doing more than you imagine!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

empowerment strategies vs levels of delegation

No Discretion

Task Setting

Participatory Empowerment

Mission Defining

Self-Management

Empowerment Strategies vs. Levels of Delegation

EmpowermentStrategies:

Levels ofDelegation:

Levels 1 - 2

Level 3

Level 4

Levels 5 - 6

Level 7

Decision-MakingProcess:

Making Choice

Alternative Discovery

Implementing Choice

Problem Identification

Alternative Evaluation

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

employee involvement model
Employee Involvement Model

~

Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W.

How to Choose a Leadership Pattern.

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

competencies required of the empowering manager
Competencies Required of the Empowering Manager*
  • Understanding of the skills and background of team members to match people and responsibilities
  • Listening actively to what your team says and does not say and showing your willingness to share power
  • Purposeful operating to ensure consistency between what you and your team do and the objectives of your organisation

F. Stone, The New Leadership –

from Delegation to Empowerment (2005)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

competencies required of the empowering manager1
Competencies Required of the Empowering Manager*
  • Emphasis on growth and opportunity, inviting team members to share leadership in a great organisation
  • Train team members to think critically about the way they and their organisation work

* F. Stone, The New Leadership – from Delegation to Empowerment (2005)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

conclusions
Conclusions
  • To be effective, delegation and empowerment should follow a method, which must be learned and practiced – the 7 step method
  • Delegation and empowerment play a significant role in our jobs as managers and are needed to meet the challenges of the future
  • Although developing effective delegation and empowerment requires time and energy, the effort will be justified by the long-term results

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the menu3
The Menu

Review

Managing

Remote or project

teams & suppliers

Coaching

high performance

Action Planning

Evening

Morning

Afternoon

Day 1

Managing Change

Day 2

Meal &

Presentation

Delegation & Empowerment

coaching skills for managers
Coaching Skills for Managers

Well John, that’s great, how else could

you improve the marketing strategy?

why coach
Why coach?
  • Is adequate performance enough?
  • As managers of others, it is essential that we can help them deliver their best - for their sake and ours
  • Coaching (and mentoring) ways to transform performance, or even lives
  • Focus on these types of intervention, but in the context of training, counselling….
    • understand the principles
    • practise techniques in planning exercises & role-plays
    • refresh perception and feel confident

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what are the performance management tools available to us
What are the performance management tools available to us?
  • Group 1
  • List the formal processes an organisation and its managers use to develop and manage the performance of staff (e.g. appraisal)
  • Rate out of 10 how well they work in your experie
  • Group 2
  • List the informal processes an organisation and its managers use to develop and manage the performance of staff (e.g. one-to-one meetings)
  • Rate out of 10 how well they work in your experience

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

performance management
Performance Management

Informal

Coaching/one-to-ones (10/10s)

Team meetings

On-the-job training

Delegation & empowerment

Job shadowing

Secondments

Job swaps

Special projects

Recognition & reward

Self study

Informal mentoring

Social events

Reporting against targets

Accompaniment/Feedback

Formal

Appraisal scheme

Performance Management Central

Career Planning/Job Connect/Mentoring scheme

Incentive Compensation

Pay review

Talent Review

Personal Development Roadmap

Training Central

Competency Framework

Professional qualifications – IAQ/IMC/CFA

Development programmes – OPEN/IMTP/MMEP

Manager Connect

Disciplinary/performance process

Employee Assistance Programme

Succession Planning

KPIs

a spectrum of options
A spectrum of options

Discipline Counselling Coaching Mentoring Training

slide223

Discipline Counselling Mentoring Coaching Training

  • When is it the right answer?
    • Specific skill and knowledge gaps exist
  • What is it?
    • Courses, professional study or on-the-job training
  • Who does it?
    • Training and education ‘professionals’
  • How is it carried out?
    • formally planned, budgeted and delivered
slide224

Discipline Counselling Mentoring Coaching Training

  • When is it the right answer?
    • work performance or behaviour does not meet minimum requirements
  • What is it?
    • formal procedures involving setting specific mandatory targets and timescales for achieving them and providing support
  • Who does it?
    • managers with the help of HR
  • How is it carried out?
    • formally and with the aim of recovery, but with the clear communication of what will happen if this is not achieved
slide225

Discipline Counselling Mentoring Coaching Training

  • When is it the right answer?
    • non-work related problems intrude on work performance
  • What is it?
    • confidential one-to one discussion listening to the individual face the problem and encouraging them to find ways to solve it
  • Who does it?
    • best carried out by HR or other professionals but may be initiated by the manager becoming aware of an issue
  • How is it carried out?
    • a highly confidential and sensitive process
slide226

Discipline Counselling Mentoring Coaching Training

  • When is it the right answer?
    • individuals need advice and encouragement in their long term career development and significant transitions in their work/life
  • What is it?
    • informal one-to-one discussion designed to help individuals define their challenges & goals and create strategies for achieving them
  • Who does it?:
    • a (more) senior manager within the organisation (but not the same department) or a respected external contact
  • How is it carried out?
    • occasional, client driven and confidential
slide227

Discipline Counselling Mentoring Coaching Training

  • When is it the right answer?
    • opportunities and potential exists for teams and individuals to further improve their performance in terms of both current and new challenges
  • What is it?
    • helping people to develop additional skills or realise their potential in the ones they have
  • Who does it?
    • the immediate manager or supervisor, and/or in specific skill areas, a subject matter expert
  • How is it carried out?
    • a constant element in team management and part of one-to-one meetings and reviews
the right tool for the job
The right tool for the job
  • Syndicate exercise
  • Select the best intervention(s) for the scenarios outlined - each is a different individual
  • Use any from the lists created earlier....
  • Be prepared to explain your choices
  • 10 minutes

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

scenarios
Scenarios
  • Habitual lateness
  • Graduate joiner
  • Shown strong expertise with systems
  • Lack of assertiveness
  • Mood swings
  • Your ideal successor in departmental succession plan
  • Maternity returner
  • Frequent sickness
  • Long term ‘average’ performer
  • Finished graduate development programme

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

scenarios1
Scenarios
  • Habitual lateness
  • Problems analysing data
  • Individual has shown unexpected expertise with a particular system
  • Lack of assertiveness
  • Misses deadlines (but working hard)
  • Mood swings (with behaviour to match)
  • Just finished a development programme (e.g. graduate/MBA)
  • Your successor in departmental succession plan
  • Maternity returner
  • New graduate joiner
  • Frequent sickness
  • Long term ‘average’ performer
wheel of life
Wheel of Life

Career

Wealth

Environment

Health

Friends

& family

Recreation

Personal

growth

Partner

/love

5 c s discussion structure
5 ‘C’s Discussion Structure
  • Challenges
    • I want to develop my career and move to the next management level
  • Choices
    • I can either focus on moving up in my own area or look at opportunities elsewhere in the company
  • Consequences
    • If I stay in my area I can develop my expertise and become qualified. But I could end up pigeon-holed as a result
  • Creative solutions
    • I could look at opportunities in the regional offices overseas where my existing expertise could be useful
  • Conclusions
    • I’ll discuss options with my own managers, look at the the study options and then decide

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

5 c s discussion structure mike pegg
5 ‘C’s Discussion Structure Mike Pegg
  • Challenges
    • encourage mentee to identify their challenges and reflect on what they mean. Mentor should challenge their views, and get the mentee to see the big picture
  • Choices
    • Discuss possible directions, goals, etc in relation to the challenges
  • Consequences
    • Stimulate the mentee to consider what are the possible results or consequences (plus and minus) of their choices
  • Creative solutions
    • Brainstorm how the mentee could achieve their chosen options
  • Conclusions
    • Encourage mentee to make choices and agree an action plan

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

1 establishing rapport
1. Establishing rapport
  • Ice-breaking
  • Goals of first meeting (intro and approach)
  • Exchange short personal histories
  • Confirm approach and subjects to be covered
  • Identify immediate goals and issues
  • Agree first steps
  • Answering mentee’s concerns

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what is coaching in a phrase
What is coaching - in a phrase?

Bringing out the best in people

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

who do you need to coach
Who do you need to coach?

Boss

Internal

Clients

External

Clients

Coach

Colleagues

Partner

Suppliers

Reports

Kids!

why do we need to coach
Why do we need to coach?
  • to share our skills and knowledge
  • to empower our staff
  • to influence others appropriately
  • to get the job done

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

when should we coach
When should we coach?
  • When delegating new tasks
  • When reviewing delegated tasks in progress
  • When a team member/colleague/client comes to you with a problem
  • In advance of major events/challenges/changes
  • When mistakes are being made (feedback)
  • To share new ideas and methods
  • As the operating style in regular one-to-one review meetings and interim appraisals

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what skills or qualities does a coach need
What skills or qualities does a coach need?
  • Attentiveness - to the here and now
  • Discipline - in listening and responding
  • Warmth - and humanity
  • Curiosity - to find out more
  • Acceptance - non judgemental
  • Genuineness - trust
  • Empathy - ability to see the world their way
  • Humour - to lighten the mood

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

two coaching styles1
Two coaching styles

INPUT

Directive

Developing skills

Providing answers

Instructing

OUTPUT

Supportive

Facilitating problem solving

Building self confidence

Encouraging others to

learn on their own

total coaching
Total coaching

50

40

60

30

70

OUTPUT

20

80

INPUT

90

10

0

100

%

performance

two coaching styles2
Two coaching styles
  • INPUT
    • identification of a skill gap by coach or coachee
    • coach advising on technique and method
    • checking on effect
  • OUTPUT
    • joint identification of a challenge/issue
    • Joint analysis of current situation
    • Focusing and encouraging coachee to identify own options for achieving them
    • monitoring & support

Reality is often a mixture of both

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

vesos a training model
VESOS – a training model

V Value/Purpose – of task

E Explain – how to do the task

S Show - demonstrate

O Observe – coachee doing it

S Supervise – stand back but monitor

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

teaching effectiveness
Teaching Effectiveness

70%

10%

32%

72%

65%

85%

Explain, Shown &

Observed

Explained &

shown

Explained

Recall

after 3

weeks

Recall

after 3

months

Source:John Whitmore

7 stages of learning
7 stages of learning
  • Sensory perception
  • Personalisation
  • Logical sequence
  • Remembrance
  • Recall
  • Practise
  • Feedback

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

input coaching
Input Coaching
  • Break into groups, each to…
  • Identify a simple, physical task on which to coach a person (or persons) from the other group
  • Develop a short coaching session using VESOS
  • And then we reconvene as one group with…
  • One person from each group to conduct this coaching session with a member of the other group(s)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what are the dangers of input coaching
What are the dangers of input coaching?
  • You need to know more than they do
  • They might not like you knowing more than they do
  • The coachee has minimal input of their own
  • They become dependent
  • Your views overwhelm theirs
  • Their performance can only ever be as good as yours

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

keys to competence
Keys to Competence

Attitude

OUTPUT

INPUT

Knowledge

Skills

what are the key factors in attitude change
What are the key factors in attitude change?
  • Analysing own/coachee performance objectively
  • Focusing on self generated goals
  • Generating practical actions
  • Building confidence that it can be done

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

how can we build rapport
How can we build rapport?
  • Show interest in the coachee as a person
  • Break the ice
  • Create a relaxed environment
  • Set a non threatening agenda

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

sources of self confidence
Sources of Self-Confidence
  • Performance Accomplishments
    • doing a job well
  • Vicarious Experiences
    • seeing that it can be done
  • Verbal Persuasion
    • receiving feedback that you believe
  • Emotional Arousal
    • managing your emotional response

Albert Bandura Psychological Review Vol 84

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what are the barriers to output coaching
What are the barriers to output coaching?

‘I’ll lose my authority’

‘They won’t know the answer’

‘I’m supposed to have all the answers’

‘They’re used to me telling them’

‘It’ll take too long’

‘Why can’t I just get the job done?’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what do we need
What do we need?

An approach that:

  • Overcomes defensiveness
  • Focuses on future performance not past failure
  • Motivates and builds confidence
  • Empowers independent effort

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

so what does an output coaching session have to cover
So what does an output coaching session have to cover?
  • What’s wrong with current performance/situation
  • Goals, aspirations, objectives
  • Possible solutions
  • Action plans for what actually needs to happen

We need to put this into a coherent model

But what comes first?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the grow model
The GROW Model

G

GOAL

Where do you want to get to?

R

REALITY

Where are you now?

O

OPTIONS

What could you do?

W

WAY FORWARD

What will you do?

Source:John Whitmore

3 minute coaching exercise
3 minute coaching exercise
  • Form into pairs
  • Everyone should identify a problem/challenge that you would like to address - keep it to yourself for now...
  • One member to face the screen, the other to face the back wall
  • The person facing the screen leads the interview asking the type of questions displayed
  • 3 minutes...

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

coaching guideline
Coaching Guideline
  • So what is the problem?
  • When is it particularly bad?
  • What does it feel like for you?
  • What else is it affecting?
  • Why do you think it’s happening…?
  • Why haven’t you been able to solve it?

Stick with the basic nature of these questions but you can change order etc. Find out as much as you can about the problem

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

coaching guideline 2
Coaching Guideline 2
  • Rather than focus on the problem, tell me what you want to happen/want instead - what your ideal outcome or end point would be?
  • Let’s imagine that has happened – what would that look like, what would you see?
  • What would be the benefits of sorting this out/doing this?
  • When you’ve approached this kind of thing in the past what was the most help?
  • So what do you think your next step should be?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

feedback
Feedback
  • How well did the first interview move someone forwards from the problem they described?
  • How did the interviewee feel at the end of the first interview?
  • How did you the interviewer feel about the problem and the likelihood of resolving it?
  • How does this compare with the second interview?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

goals
Goals
  • Starting with goals assumes everyone has clear goals they can articulate
    • hmmmm
  • But everyone has problems (reality)
  • All we have to do is turn the problems into goals
  • Talking about the problem without focusing on finding the solution won’t get anyone anywhere

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

putting it another way
Putting it another way

I never look at the consequences of missing a big shot . . .

when you think about the consequences you always think of a negative result.

Michael Jordan

Basketball icon

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

goals1
Goals

‘Focus on the gap, not the obstacle’

not just any old goal a bhag
Not just any old goal - a BHAG

BIG

HAIRY

AUDACIOUS

GOAL

*James Collins and Jerry Porras

henry ford
Henry Ford

Obstacles are those frightful things you see

when you take your eyes off your goal

what are the key skills of the output coach
What are the key skills of the output coach?
  • Being an expert on the topic?

not needed, you can’t know everything

  • Solving people’s problems?

no, that is their job

  • Telling them what they’re doing?

no, asking questions and listening actively

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

listening skills

2

1

Listening skills

Use them in that ratio

what are the skills of active listening
What are the skills of active listening?
  • Focus on the speaker
  • Give listening signals
  • Take notes
  • Build rapport
  • Make eye contact
  • Encourage development/detail
  • Ask questions

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

open and closed questions
Open and closed questions

Open non-specific, general, encourages complete answers

How’s it going?

…but gets non-commital ones

Closed seeking a ‘yes’ or ‘no’

Any problems?

…but getting a false no (‘good news only syndrome’)

Semi-open specifically focused enquiry

How is the new project progressing?

Semi-closed probing for single facts

What’s put the project behind schedule?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

two questions to avoid
Two questions to avoid
  • Leading - suggests the desired answer:

‘Do you think a planning session would be a good idea?’

What could you say instead?

  • Loaded - a more charged version:

‘Are you sure you did enough planning?’

Both inclined to manipulate the responses

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the grow model1
The GROW Model

G

GOAL

Where do you want to get to?

R

REALITY

Where are you now?

O

OPTIONS

What could you do?

W

WAY FORWARD

What will you do?

goal seeking questions
Goal seeking questions

Goal for

discussion

End Goal

Performance Goal

turning problems into goals
Turning problems into goals
  • My team is de-motivated and I need to do something
  • I’m a couch potato and need to get fit

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

goals for discussion
Goals for discussion
  • What would you like to get out of this discussion
  • What do you want to leave this meeting with?
  • What needs to happen for you to feel this discussion has been helpful?
    • A way to build team motivation & morale
    • A plan to get fit

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

end goals
End Goals
  • Where do you want to end up? What specifically do you want to achieve? What would the ideal end result be? What makes this important? What would this enable you to do?
    • I’d like the team to hit their next quarter’s targets
      • High morale is not the real goal….
    • I want to take part in next year’s London Marathon
      • Being fit is not the real goal….
  • Digging for the end goal can flush out the real goal or problem the person needs to tackle

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

performance goals
Performance Goals
  • And what would that look like in detail? How would things be if you were achieving that goal? What does a good performance look like? What would be the observable signs of success?
    • ‘The team socialising together, helping each other out, with individual and team targets and everyone getting together to celebrate success’
    • ‘I’d be exercising at least five times a week, following a healthy diet, lost some weight, oh… and drinking less’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

creating compelling outcomes
Creating Compelling Outcomes
  • Think of something you really want
  • Is it within your control? Which parts are?
  • Imagine you have it – what’s it like?
  • In what contexts do you want to have this?
  • How is this a real benefit to the significant people in your life?
  • What are the costs of achieving this? Are you willing to pay them?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

turning problems into goals1
Turning problems into goals

Problem

End Goal

Missed last month’s target

Goal for next month

Don’t get on with colleague

Creating a good relationship

Too much work

Achieving your key tasks

De-motivated

Exciting work challenge

Project behind schedule

Hitting a realistic target date

Unwilling to make a presentation

Preparing a great presentation

the grow model2
The GROW Model

G

GOAL

Where do you want to get to?

R

REALITY

Where are you now?

O

OPTIONS

What could you do?

W

WAY FORWARD

What will you do?

reality questions
Reality questions
  • Help the coachee to rethink the false pattern they have created
    • One in which they are either the victim (it’s not my fault)
    • or the villain (it’s all my fault)
  • Replace interpretation with facts
  • Highlight success as well as failure
  • Open the door to feedback if needed

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

reality what question could you ask the coachee
RealityWhat question could you ask the coachee?
  • description not judgement

‘I just can’t do it’

what should you say?

‘Tell me which parts you find most difficult…’

  • causes not symptoms

‘The suppliers let us down’

what should you ask?

‘What dates did you agree with them?’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

reality seeking questions
Reality seeking questions
  • Talk me through what has happened…
  • Give me some recent specific examples
  • What have you tried?
  • Which people provide the greatest difficulties?
  • When did the problem start?
  • Who is involved?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

getting to the root cause
Getting to the root cause

Critical incident interviewing

  • Ask the them to tell you exactly what happened:
    • Who said what and when
    • What they thought, said and did at the time
    • Specific, detailed and without interpretation
  • Reliving the event or a, key moment from it, to unlock a fresh perception
  • Focus on behaviour then rather than feelings now

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

scaling progress
Scaling progress
  • Using a scale of 1-10, and 10 is the place you’d like to be, where would you say you are now?
  • Good, what are the things you’re happy about
    • the mark you’ve given yourself
  • And what are the aspects you’re unhappy about?
    • the gap between the mark and ‘10’

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

what have we achieved so far
What have we achieved so far?
  • Forced coachee to think strategically
  • Defined goals in terms of the discussion, end result and in detail
  • Established current reality – good and bad
  • Defined the gap between reality and goal
  • Modification of end goal by coachee if the gap is inappropriate (too small as well as too big)

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the grow model3
The GROW Model

G

GOAL

Where do you want to get to?

R

REALITY

Where are you now?

O

OPTIONS

What could you do?

W

WAY FORWARD

What will you do?

Source:John Whitmore

confirm the gap
Confirm the gap

Goal

Way forward

Gap

Reality

whose ideas are the best
Whose ideas are the best?

THEIRS

because they:

  • know the problem better than you
  • will be committed to their solutions
  • need to take ownership
  • must feel empowered and responsible
  • need to believe they can do it without you

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

a two person brainstorm
A two-person brainstorm
  • creative solutions come from…
  • new perceptions of the problem (GR)
  • quantity not quality of ideas
  • suspended judgement (ideas first, assess later)
  • a sense that there is a choice

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

options seeking questions
Options seeking questions
  • What are your ideas for dealing with this?
  • What tools could you use?
  • Who else can help you?
  • What could you do in regard to… (focused semi open questions)
  • If that didn’t work, what else could you do?
  • Go on… one more idea?
  • Something you said made me think… could you?

Don’t offer more resources/staff/time… you haven’t got them!

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

the grow model4
The GROW Model

G

GOAL

Where do you want to get to?

R

REALITY

Where are you now?

O

OPTIONS

What could you do?

W

WAY FORWARD

What will you do?

way forward1
Way forward
  • Summarising the options
  • Testing them for
    • Relevance
    • Practicality
    • Desirability
  • Creating a (very) shortlist of related actions
  • Turning them into SMARTER objectives

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

way forward seeking questions
Way forward seeking questions
  • Which options do you think would work best?
  • How well do they meet your criteria for success?
  • How will this option achieve your goal?
  • If you couldn’t do it all, what would you drop?
  • What could stop you?Talk me though the steps involved
  • When can you start/complete this?
  • Who else needs to be involved to do this?
  • Rate your commitment to this working - on a scale of 1 to 10
  • – …what could raise your commitment?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

firming up the action plan1
Firming up the action plan
  • Define SMARTER objectives
  • Establish review points
  • Ask the coachee to summarise exactly what he or she is actually going to do
  • Confirm the support you will be providing
    • and the standards you expect

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

ending the session
Ending the session
  • Give the coachee positive feedback on the discussion:
    • I would just like to say how much I appreciated your honesty today - and what a good job you’re already doing to tackle the issues you raised
  • Hand responsibility for ending the session to the coachee:
    • Is there anything else we need to discuss before we finish today?

Middle Management

Effectiveness Programme

review
Review

Review

Managing

Remote or project

teams & suppliers

Coaching

high performance

Action Planning

Evening

Morning

Afternoon

Day 1

Managing Change

Day 2

Meal &

Presentation

Delegation & Empowerment

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