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Geothermal projects in Iceland. Ólafur G. Flóvenz General director of ISOR Presentation at “Geothermal Energy - Benefits and Potential” an event in Brussels on February 1st 2008 during European Union Sustainable Energy Week. The heat comes from from decay of radioactive material.

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Geothermal projects in Iceland

Ólafur G. Flóvenz

General director of ISOR

Presentation at “Geothermal Energy - Benefits and Potential”

an event in Brussels on February 1st 2008during

European Union Sustainable Energy Week

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


The internal heat of the earth

The heat comes from from decay of radioactive material.

0.1% of the energy that is stored in Earth’s crust could satisfy the world energy consumption for 10.000 years.

~ 30 °C/km

> 1000 °C

> 3000 °C

> 5000 °C

The internal heat of the Earth

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Worldwide technical potential of renewable energy sources ej per year
Worldwidetechnical potential of renewable energy sources(EJ per year)

Hydro-

power

Biomass

Solar

energy

Wind

energy

Geothermal

energy

World Energy Assessment 2000


The heat stored in the earth s crust
The heat stored in the Earth´s crust

The geothermal energy resource is huge

but we have technical problems to harness it.

www.isor.is

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Renewable energy electricity 2005
Renewable energy – Electricity 2005

Source: WEC 2007 Survey of Energy Resources, 427-437. World Energy Council  2007 (www.worldenergy.org)


Key question
Key question

How can we extract and utilize the geothermal heat for sustainable energy production with low environmental impact?

www.isor.is

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

Photo: Anette K. Mortensen


Some concepts of geothermal energy
Some concepts of geothermal energy

Three main types of geothermal fields for electricity production:

High temperature fields

Medium temperature fields

Low temperature fields

We distinguish between:

Conventional geothermal systems

Unconventional geothermal systems

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


High temperature fields
High temperature fields

200 – 350°C

Depth: 1 – 3 km

Related to volcanism and plate boundaries

Suitible for electricity production with conventional turbines

Nesjavellir, Iceland. 300°C fluid used to produce electricity

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Medium temperature fields
Medium temperature fields

120-200°C

1 – 5 km

Mostly found in deep sedimentary basins around the world as well as in volcanic areas

High flowrates necessary for electricity

Binary systems needed for electricity production

Húsavík, Iceland. 124°C water used to produce electricity

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Low temperature fields
Low temperature fields

Below 100 °C

At 1 – 3 km depth

Mostly found in sedimentary basins and fracture zones around the world

Suitible for space heating, balneology, fish farming etc.

Photo: Sigurdur Sveinn Jónsson


Conventional geothermal system
Conventional geothermal system

Market

Borhole

Permeable fractures

Fluid recharge

HOT ROCK

Power Plant

COLD ROCK


Almost all geothermal power plants in the world today are conventional
Almost all geothermal power plants in the world today are conventional

Olkaria, Kenya

Photo: Ingavar Birgir Friðleifsson


Unconventional geothermal fields are of two main types
Unconventional geothermal fields are of two main types: conventional

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

Supercritical Geothermal Systems (SGS)

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Enhanced geothermal system egs
Enhanced geothermal system (EGS) conventional

Injection well

Market

Power Plant

Production well

COLD ROCK

Artificially enhanced permeability

HOT ROCK


Primary e nergy c onsumption in i c eland 1940 2006
Primary conventionalenergy consumption in Iceland 1940-2006

Source: Orkustofnun

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Energy sources used for space heating 1970 2005
Energy sources used for space heating 1970-2005 conventional

Source: Orkustofnun

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Cost of house heating conventionalin the Nordic countries

Iceland

Finland

Norway

Sweden

Denmark

Source: Samorka, Iceland


From fossil fuel to geothermal the environmental benefit
From fossil fuel to geothermal: conventionalThe environmental benefit

Before geothermal space heating: Reykjavik in 1933 covered with smoke from coal heatings,

With geothermal space heating: Reykjavik in 2008, almost same view but without visible air pollution

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


Geothermal fields and installed power in geothermal plants
Geothermal fields and installed power in geothermal plants conventional

2 MW

60 MW

3 MW

120 MW

76 MW

+ 400 MW 2015

+ 400 MW before 2015

120 MW

100 MW

+ 200 MW before 2015 ?

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


The magic icelandic progress
The magic Icelandic progress conventional

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

  • Favourable, but not unique geological conditions.

  • High public acceptance.

  • Political willingness:

    • Good regulatory and legal framework.

    • Strong initial governmental support for research, capacity building and risk sharing funds.


Favourable geological conditions conventional

  • Intersection of a hot spot and a oceanic Ridge.

  • Repeated magmatic intrusions keeps the crust warm.

  • Seismic activity opens pathways for fluid to extract the heat.

Hot spot

ICELAND GEOSURVEY


The geothermal potential in iceland
The geothermal potential in Iceland conventional

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

  • The generating capacity from known high temperatrue fields is of the order of 25 TWh/y assuming heat extraction to 3 km depth.

  • In addition there are 1,50x1021 J stored energy above 200°C between 3 and 5 km in the volcanic zone in extensional environment. Converting only 1% of this energy to electricity could yield additional 40 TWh/y for 100 years.

  • To-day the generating capacity in Iceland is 480MWe. The total potential is unknown, but might be as a high as 8000 MWe , depending on the technical progress in the near future.


Public acceptance the blue lagoon
Public acceptance: The Blue Lagoon conventional

Photo:GOF-9. March 2001, 11:35:48



Are the mid oceanic ridges the future energy resource
Are the mid-oceanic ridges conventionalthe future energy resource?

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

  • About 600 km of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are in Icelandic waters.

  • Very high temperatures at shallow depths below the ocean bottom.

  • Could we develop methods to produce 30.000 MW of electricity from oceanic ridges in the future?


The icelandic geothermal experience shows that
The Icelandic geothermal experience shows that conventional

Photo: Emil Thor

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

  • Geothermal energy can be produced in a sustainable and feasible way with low environmental impact.


To increase the world wide share of geothermal electricity production we need
To increase the world wide share of geothermal electricity production we need:

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

  • Strong support for research, especially for unconventional geothermal resources.

  • Support action to implement geothermal plants in the developing countries.

  • Education and dissemination of geothermal know-how.

  • Favourable legal and regulatory framework.


Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention production we need:

www.isor.is

ICELAND GEOSURVEY

Photo: Gudmundur Steingrímsson


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