Enzymes
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Enzymes. pp 96 - 102. Enzymes. All enzymes are proteins; not all proteins are enzymes. Most enzymes have an – ase ending. ATPase amylase. Enzymes. enzyme - . Enzymes. Substrate – . Steps to Enzyme Reactions. Write out the 5 steps for an enzyme catalyzing a reaction.

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Enzymes

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Enzymes

pp 96 - 102


Enzymes

All enzymes are proteins; not all proteins are enzymes.

Most enzymes have an –aseending.

ATPase

amylase


Enzymes

enzyme -


Enzymes

Substrate–


Steps to Enzyme Reactions

Write out the 5 steps for an enzyme catalyzing a reaction


Substrate Binding

active site


Substrate Binding

R-groups


Enzymes

activation energy  EA


Reaction Progression

Reaction Progession


Enzyme Energy

Enzymes lower the activation energy (EA) of reactions.


enzyme-substrate complex

Substrate Binding

induced-fit model -


Substrate Binding

Enzymes reduce EA by:


Enzyme Limitations


Enzyme Limitations


Limitations of Enzymes

Why do enzymes operate at an optimal temperature and pH?


Enzyme Limitations

cofactors–

coenzymes–

An apoenzymeis


Enzyme Inhibition

competitive inhibitor –

noncompetitive inhibitor –


Enzyme Inhibition


Enzyme Regulation

allosteric site –

allosteric activator –

allosteric inhibitor –


Allosteric Sites


Feedback Inhibition

A, B, C and D are molecules along a metabolic pathway.

E1, E2 and E3 are enzymes required for this metabolic pathway.

D is an allosteric inhibitor of E1.


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