Enzymes
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Enzymes. pp 96 - 102. Enzymes. All enzymes are proteins; not all proteins are enzymes. Most enzymes have an – ase ending. ATPase amylase. Enzymes. enzyme - . Enzymes. Substrate – . Steps to Enzyme Reactions. Write out the 5 steps for an enzyme catalyzing a reaction.

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Enzymes

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Enzymes

Enzymes

pp 96 - 102


Enzymes1

Enzymes

All enzymes are proteins; not all proteins are enzymes.

Most enzymes have an –aseending.

ATPase

amylase


Enzymes2

Enzymes

enzyme -


Enzymes3

Enzymes

Substrate–


Steps to enzyme reactions

Steps to Enzyme Reactions

Write out the 5 steps for an enzyme catalyzing a reaction


Substrate binding

Substrate Binding

active site


Substrate binding1

Substrate Binding

R-groups


Enzymes4

Enzymes

activation energy  EA


Reaction progression

Reaction Progression

Reaction Progession


Enzyme energy

Enzyme Energy

Enzymes lower the activation energy (EA) of reactions.


Substrate binding2

enzyme-substrate complex

Substrate Binding

induced-fit model -


Substrate binding3

Substrate Binding

Enzymes reduce EA by:


Enzyme limitations

Enzyme Limitations


Enzyme limitations1

Enzyme Limitations


Limitations of enzymes

Limitations of Enzymes

Why do enzymes operate at an optimal temperature and pH?


Enzyme limitations2

Enzyme Limitations

cofactors–

coenzymes–

An apoenzymeis


Enzyme inhibition

Enzyme Inhibition

competitive inhibitor –

noncompetitive inhibitor –


Enzyme inhibition1

Enzyme Inhibition


Enzyme regulation

Enzyme Regulation

allosteric site –

allosteric activator –

allosteric inhibitor –


Allosteric sites

Allosteric Sites


Feedback inhibition

Feedback Inhibition

A, B, C and D are molecules along a metabolic pathway.

E1, E2 and E3 are enzymes required for this metabolic pathway.

D is an allosteric inhibitor of E1.


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