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Basic Elements of Explosion Protection in the EU Legislative Context. ATEX Symposium 22 – 24 Eylül 2011, Ankara, Türkiye. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Klausmeyer Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany. The ATEX Regulation.

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Basic elements of explosion protection in the eu legislative context

Basic Elements of Explosion Protection in the EU Legislative Context

ATEX Symposium

22 – 24 Eylül 2011, Ankara, Türkiye

Dr.-Ing. Uwe Klausmeyer

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

Braunschweig, Germany


The atex regulation
The ATEX Regulation

EU Directivesofthe „New Approach“ Legislative Framework, consistingof:- 94/9/EC (tradeofequipment, ESRs)- 1999/92/EC (safetyofworkplace)






Accident at ineos near cologne germany 17th of march 2008
Accident at INEOS near Cologne, Germany17th of March, 2008

Has set fire to amethylacetate tank

Pipeline ofEthyleneis burning


Explosion protection
Explosion protection

Avoid concurrence:- Oxygen (air)!!! Inertization- Ignition source!!! Elimination- Combustibles (gas, vapour, dust)!!! Ventilation


Spread of gases
Spreadofgases

  • Convection

  • Buoyancy

Lighter than air

Heavier than air



Combustible liquids
Combustible liquids

5 ml gasoline is enough to produce 200 l of explosive atmosphere, which can destroy a barrel!

Formation of highly flammable vapour/ air mixture can occur when handling with even small amounts of break cleaners!


Spread of combustible dusts
Spread of combustible dusts

Dust layers with a thickness of 1 mm can be enough to produce explosive atmospheres!


Critical concentrationofFlammablesubstances (safetycharacteristics)



Ignition sources – EN 1127-1

  • Ignition of an explosive atmosphere can be caused by various sources:

  • hot surfaces

  • flames and hot gases

  • mechanically generated sparks

  • electrical installations

  • equalizing currents, cathodic corrosion protection

  • static electricity

  • lightning

  • electromagnetic waves (high-frequency)

  • optical radiation

  • ionising radiation

  • ultrasonics

  • adiabatic compression and shock waves

  • exothermal reactions



Flameproof enclosure d to mitigate an explosion hazard
Flameproof enclosure “d”, to mitigate an explosion hazard

  • Special preparation:

  • Max tolerances at all gaps

  • Without gaskets and grease

Ignition devicepressure transducer

Explosive gasmixture


Electrostatic charge hazard

4

Electrical apparatus

1

  • Conductable wheels

  • conductable seat material

  • conductable housing

  • grounding against electrostatic charge

  • Motor „d“, „e“

  • control device „d“, „e“, „i“

  • accumulator „e“

  • plug and socket „d“

  • lighting fixture and control lights „d“, „e“

Temperature control

6

  • Motor control device

  • motor

  • hydraulic oil/system

Sparks caused by metallic parts

5

  • Coating with brass, bronze andstainless steel

Electrical installation

2

  • IEC/EN 60079-14

Engine

7

Mechanical apparatus

3

  • Brakes and oil hydraulic system/components

Ignition hazards of a complex apparatus:a fork lift (electrical motor or combustion engine)

4

3

4

3

7

1

3

6

2

1

5

5

4

4


The atex regime
The ATEX Regime hazard

  • Free Trade Directive 94/9/EC in the Internal EU Market (Essential Health and Safety Requirements – ESRs, obligations of the manufacturer)

  • Worker protection (Social) Directive 1999/92/EC (obligations of the end user)

  • ATEX Standing Committee

  • ATEX Notified Bodies

  • ATEX Consultant, CENELEC, CEN, Presumption of Conformity with ESRs


What s about this mark
What‘s hazardaboutthis „mark“????

Chinese Export, ConfusionEverywhere ;-))))

1. ConformitéEuropéenne (FR)

2. Legal mark, NOT a qualitymarklikeTSE, VDE, UL… IECEx

3. Affixedby a manufacturer on hisownresponsibilty

4. maybebased on an EC Type ExaminationCertificatebyan independentATEX Notifiedbody, in the ATEX fieldonlyfor Zone 0 andZone 1 classifiedareas

5. installationandinstructionmanual!!!!!


Important directives of the new approach
Important directives of the New Approach hazard

  • (Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC)

  • Machinery Directive 98/37/EC

  • ATEX (Explosion-proof equipment) 94/9/EC

  • EMC Directive 89/336/EEC

  • Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC

  • R&TTE-Directive 1999/5/EC

  • Toys Directive 88/378/EEC

  • Personal Protective Equipment Directive 89/686/EEC

  • Construction Products Directive 89/106/EEC

  • Medical Devices Directive 93/42/EEC

  • (CE-Kennzeichnungs-Richtlinie 93/68/EEC)


Relation of atex cen cenelec iso and iec iecex
Relation of ATEX, CEN/CENELEC, ISO and IEC/ hazardIECEx

ATEX Notified Bodies - Nando

New Practice ofmany ATEX NotifiedBodies (IECExExCB) istousetheelementsofIECEx (ExTRs, QAR) toissue a EC Type ExaminationCcertificateandthe QA Notification


Iec vs cen cenelec
IEC vs. CEN/CENELEC hazard

  • Dresden/Vienna Agreement on Parallel Voting of documents, stand still agreement CLC/IEC

  • EN 60079-0 (former edition EN 50014 - EEx) is equivalent to IEC 60079-0 (Ex),EN/IEC 60079-1 „d“, -2 „p“, -5 „q“, -6 „o“,-7 „e“, -11 „i“, ….. , -18 „m“, -26 „Zone 0“…., -34 „QM Production“, -36, -37 (mech.)

  • Plant operation: EN/IEC 60079-10-1/-2, EN/IEC 60079-14, -17, -19


Safety concepts for equipment older versions of the standards
Safety hazardconceptsforequipment – olderversionsofthestandards



Classification of equipment in EN/IEC 60079-14

accordance to EN/IEC 60079-0

 Temperatur Class:

Maximum surface temperature

 Explosion Group


Hazardous EN/IEC 60079-14substanceandsafetycharacteristics (EN/IEC 60079-20)


Examples of 94/9-equipment with EC Declaration of Conformity EN/IEC 60079-14

To be installed in accordance with IEC 60079-14


Classification of equipment
Classification EN/IEC 60079-14ofequipment


Minimum duties of the manufacturer
Minimum EN/IEC 60079-14dutiesofthemanufacturer

Electrical equipment

Mechanical equipment

Category 1/M1:- EC Type Examination Cert.- QA Notification/Annex IV

Category 2/M2:- self declaration of conformity- Deposit of product documentation at an ATEX Notified Body

Category 3:- self declaration of conformity, ATEX Notified Body not required

  • Category 1/M1:- EC Type Examination Cert.- QA Notification/Annex IV

  • Category 2/M2:- EC Type Examination Cert.- QA Notification/Annex VII

  • Category 3:- self declaration of conformity, ATEX Notified Body not required


Way to the ce marking
Way to the CE marking EN/IEC 60079-14

EC Declaration

of Conformity

01.01.2010

CE – conformity marking# and

EC – declaration of conformity by the manufacturer(Annex X)

#: not for components according Article 8, 3

all categories

equipment,

protective systems

category 1, M1

equipment,

protective systems

category 2, M2

electrical equipment,

combustion engines

category 2, M2

non-electrical

equipment

category 3

equipment

Unit verification

(Annex IX)

Production

quality

assurance

(Annex IV)

or

Product

verification

(Annex V)

Product

quality

assurance

(Annex VII)

or

Conformity

to type

(Annex VI)

Internal

control of

production

(Annex VIII)

Internal

control of

production

(Annex VIII)

Deposit of

documentation

(Article 8, 1b ii)

EC

type-examination

certificate

(Annex III)

EC

type-examination

certificate

(Annex III)

Notified Body

Manufacturer

Category according

article 8


Risk assessment acc. ATEX Directive 1999/92 EN/IEC 60079-14

The employer hasto conduct anignitionrisk assessment:

  • Probability and duration of a significant amount of explosive gas or dust atmosphere (Zone classification in acc. to EN/IEC 60079-10-1, -2)

  • Probability and energy of ignition source

  • scale of damages which might occur


EU- EN/IEC 60079-14Directive 1999/92/EGand IEC 60079-10-1

Zone 0

A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is present continuously or for long periods or frequently.

Zone 1

A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air or flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.

Zone 2

A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.


Directive EN/IEC 60079-14 1999/92/EGand IEC 60079-10-2

Zone 20

A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustable dust in air is present continously, or for long periods or frequently.

Zone 21

A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.

Zone 22

A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it

does occur, will persist for a short period only.


Examples for zoning hazardous areas example of iec 60079 10
Examples for zoning hazardous areas – EN/IEC 60079-14example of IEC 60079-10

Stirrer


Examples of 94/9-equipment with EC Declaration of Conformity EN/IEC 60079-14

CE – EU Dir. 94/9 marked equipment is required by the user‘s directive 1999/92


Directive 1999/92/EG EN/IEC 60079-14(1) Documentation

  • Explosion protection document:

  • description of the plant, the process, the activities and flammable material quantities

  • material data

  • results of the explosion risk assessment

  • Explosion protection measures

  • Organizational measures (training staff, …)

Get assistance by

NAMUR.de andNAMUR recommendation xyz


Directive 1999/92/EG EN/IEC 60079-14(2) Maintenance

  • Ensure expertise of the personell

MaintenanceIEC 60079-17and -19

  • Training and experience must be ensured

  • Prevent occurence of hazardous atmophere

  • install a fire monitor if necessary

  • Making sure before restarting that the explosion protection measures required for normal operation have been reactived

  • clean dust deposits from installed products


The atex standing committee
The ATEX Standing Committee EN/IEC 60079-14

  • Representatives coming from Ministries of the EU Member States, Industry Associations, ExNB Group, Standardization Bodies CENELEC and CEN, ATEX Consultant, …. the Stakeholders

  • Interpretation of the Directives 94/9 and 1999/92

  • Interface to other Directives, e.g. to the Machinery Directive

  • Meeting once a year in Brussels


Atex notified body group
ATEX Notified Body group EN/IEC 60079-14

The ATEX Notified Bodies

  • More than 60 ATEX Notified Bodies with similar scopes

  • but it is a national notification, not an accreditation in acc. with ISO/IEC standards

  • requirements for notification see annex XI of the 94/9

  • general experience: no chance outside EU with such a notification, ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 65 are to be applied by internationally recognized ILAC/IAF accreditation bodies like TÜRKAK


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