Unit xi ecology and animal behavior
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Unit XI: Ecology and Animal Behavior. Ecological interactions affect how organisms evolve, and evolutionary change in turn affects ecological relationships. Ecology. Ecology the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment + two types of interactions

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Unit XI: Ecology and Animal Behavior

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Unit xi ecology and animal behavior

Unit XI: Ecology and Animal Behavior

Ecological interactions affect how organisms evolve, and evolutionary change in turn affects ecological relationships.


Ecology

Ecology

  • Ecology

  • the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment

  • + two types of interactions

  • - biotic (living)

  • - abiotic (nonliving)

  • + levels of study

  • - population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

  • Population Ecology

  • + population: group of individuals all of the same species living in

  • the same area

  • - describing abundance/distribution of populations

  • + size (total number of individuals = N)

  • + density (total number of individuals per area/volume)

  • + dispersion (clumped, uniform, random)


Age structure

Age Structure

Sweden- relatively stable population growth

Mexico- rapidly growing population

United States- relatively stable population growth


Survivorship curves

Survivorship Curves

Type I: most individuals die old

Type II: length of survivorship is random

Type III: most individuals die young


Population growth

Population Growth

  • Biotic potential

  • maximum growth rate of population under ideal conditions

  • + bacteria divide every 20 minutes

  • + elephants require 2 year gestation period

  • - factors

  • + age at reproductive maturity

  • + clutch size

  • + frequency of reproduction

  • + reproductive lifetime

  • + survivorship of offspring to maturity

  • Carrying Capacity (K)

  • maximum number of individuals a population can sustain

  • + limiting factors

  • - elements that prevent a population from attaining

  • its biotic potential


Density dependent factors

Density-dependent Factors

  • Density-dependent factor

  • intensifies as population increases

  • + reduce the population growth by

  • decreasingreproduction or by

  • increasingmortality

  • - parasites/disease, competition,

  • predation, stress


Density independent factors

Density-independent Factors

  • Density-independent factor

  • occurs independently of population; unrelated to population size

  • + natural disasters and extremes of climate


Calculating growth rate

Calculating Growth Rate

  • r = births - deaths

  • N

  • r = reproductive/growth rate

  • births - deaths = net increase of individuals

  • N • r = births - deaths

  • ΔN = r • N

  • Δt

  • represents the change in the number of individuals over a given time

  • When r is…

  • positive (rmax = intrinsic rate) population size will increase

  • negative, population size will decrease

  • zero, population size remains constant (ZPG)


Exponential growth

Exponential Growth

J-shaped curve


Logistic growth

Logistic Growth

  • Logistic Growth

  • occurs when limiting

  • factors restrict the size

  • of the population to

  • the carrying capacity (K)

  • ΔN = r • N(K - N)

  • Δt K

  • as population increases,

  • r decreases until N = K,

  • and r = 0

S-shaped/sigmoid curve


Life history strategies

Life-history Strategies

  • k selected and r selected species

  • k selected (prudent or equilibrial populations)

  • + produce small numbers of young; lots of parental care

  • - long life expectancy strategy

  • + consequences

  • - increased probability of long term survival

  • - slow to recuperate numbers when population is reduced

  • r selected (prodigal or opportunistic populations)

  • + produce many young; very little parental care

  • - short life expectancy strategy

  • + consequences

  • - can recuperate numbers quickly following population crash

  • - lead risky lives


Generation time and body size

Generation Time and Body Size

Which organisms are…

r selected?

k selected?

What about in the plant kingdom?


Community ecology

Community Ecology

  • Community Ecology

  • looking at the interactions between populations

  • + interspecific/intraspecific interactions

  • - interactions between populations of different/same species

  • - positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (0)

  • + types

  • - Competition

  • - Predation

  • - Symbiosis


Competition

Competition

  • Competition (-/-)

  • interaction between individual organisms that use the same resources

  • present in limited supply

  • - niche: set of resources/conditions necessary for survival

  • + organism’s role/job in the community

  • - intraspecific/interspecific competition

  • + same/different species

  • - types

  • + Interference Competition

  • - animals: overt fighting; plants: secretion of toxins

  • + Exploitative Competition

  • - removal of a resource

  • - Competitive Exclusion Principle- G.F. Gause, Russian biologist


Predation

Predation

  • Predation (+/-)

  • eating of live or freshly killed organisms

  • + predators eat prey

  • + parasitism

  • - specialized predators do not actually kill prey (host)

  • + Three hypotheses

  • - When prey population decreases, predator population decreases;

  • When predator population decreases, prey population increases

  • - Prey populations may undergo a regular cycle

  • - Predator populations may undergo a regular cycle

  • + Defense against Predators

  • - cryptic coloration (camouflage)

  • - aposematic coloration (warning coloration)

  • - mimicry

  • + Batesian (harmless species mimics harmful model)

  • + Mullerian (harmful species resemble each other)


Symbiosis

Symbiosis

  • Symbiosis

  • close and long term association between organisms of two species

  • + Mutualism (+/+)

  • - both organisms benefit from the interaction

  • + mycorrhizae, lichens

  • + Commensalism (+/0)

  • - one species benefits, but other is unaffected

  • + remora-shark relationship


Community composition and the question of stability

Community Composition and the Question of Stability

  • Disturbances

  • events, such as storms, fire, floods, droughts, overgrazing, etc.

  • + damage community, remove organisms, alter resource availability

  • - communities are usually in a state of recovery

  • Ecological Succession

  • change in the composition of species over time

  • + climax community

  • - final successional stage of constant species composition

  • + changes that induce succession

  • - substrate texture

  • - soil pH

  • - soil water potential

  • - light availability

  • - crowding


Primary succession

Primary Succession

  • Primary Succession

  • occurs on substrates that never

  • previously supported living things

  • + succession on rock or lava

  • - lichens

  • - bacteria, protists, mosses

  • - insects, other arthropods

  • - r-selected species of plants

  • - k-selected species of plants


Secondary succession

Secondary Succession

  • Secondary Succession

  • begins in habitats where communities were destroyed by disturbances

  • + abandoned cropland


Ecosystems

Ecosystems

  • Trophic Levels

  • Primary producers

  • + autotrophs (plants, protists,

  • cyanobacteria, chemosynthetic

  • bacteria)

  • Primary consumers

  • + herbivores

  • Secondary consumers

  • + primary carnivores

  • Tertiary consumers

  • + secondary carnivores

  • Detritivores

  • + decomposers (fungi, bacteria,

  • earthworms, insects,

  • scavengers)


Pyramid of energy

Pyramid of Energy


Pyramid of biomass

Pyramid of Biomass


Pyramid of numbers

Pyramid of Numbers


Ecological efficiency

Ecological Efficiency

  • Ecological Efficiency

  • proportion of energy

  • represented at one trophic level

  • that is transferred to the next

  • + average efficiency=10%

  • - only 10% of productivity

  • is transferred to next level

  • - remaining 90% is

  • consumed by metabolism


Food chains and food webs

Food Chains and Food Webs

  • Food Chain

  • linear flow chart of who eats whom

  • grass --> zebra --> lion --> vulture

  • Food Webs

  • expanded, more complete


Biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • flow of essential elements from the environment to living things and

  • back to the environment

  • + reservoirs

  • - major storage locations

  • + assimilation

  • - processes through which element incorporates into

  • terrestrial plants and animals

  • + release

  • - processes through which element returns to the environment


Hydrologic cycle water cycle

Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle)

Reservoirs: oceans, air, groundwater, glaciers

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil; animals eat/drink

Release: plants transpire; animals/plants decompose


Carbon cycle

Carbon Cycle

Reservoirs: atmosphere (CO2), fossil fuels, peat, cellulose

Assimilation: plants via photosynthesis; consumers

Release: respiration and decomposition; burn fossil fuels


Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Reservoirs: atmosphere (N2); soil (ammonium, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate)

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil; animals consume plants/animals

Release: denitrifying and detrivorous bacteria; animal excretion


Phosphorous cycle

Phosphorous Cycle

Reservoirs: rocks

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil (phosphate); consumers

Release: decomposition; excretion in waste products


Biomes

  • Biome

  • region of biosphere characteristized by vegetation and

  • adaptations of organisms inhabiting the environment

  • + Tropical rain forest (high temp., heavy rainfall)

  • + Savannahs (grassland with scattered trees)

  • - tropical, but receive less rainfall than rain forest

  • + Temperate grasslands (North American prairie)

  • - receive less water/lower temp. than savannahs

  • + Temperate deciduous forests (warm summer/cold winters)

  • + Deserts (hot and dry)

  • + Taigas (coniferous forests)

  • - precipitation in the form of snow

  • + Tundras (Lambau Field)

  • - permafrost

  • + Fresh water biomes (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers)

  • + Marine biomes (estuaries, intertidal zones, continental shelves,

  • coral reefs, pelagic oceans)

Biomes


Animal behavior

  • Ethology

  • the study of animal behavior

  • nature versus nurture… both?

  • + kinds of animal behavior

  • - Innate Behavior

  • + instinct

  • + fixed action patterns or FAP (Niko Tinbergen)

  • + imprinting* (Konrad Lorenz)

  • - Learned Behavior

  • + associative learning

  • - classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)

  • - operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner)

  • + habituation

  • + observational learning

  • + insight

Animal Behavior


Animal movement

Animal Movement

  • Kinesis

  • undirected change in speed of movement in response to stimulus

  • + speed up in unfavorable; slow down in favorable

  • - light, touch, air temp., etc.

  • + Avon bug in the bathroom tub

  • Taxis

  • directed movement in response to stimulus

  • + toward/away from stimulus

  • - phototaxis, chemotaxis

  • + mosquitos and CO2

  • Migration

  • long-distance, seasonal movement

  • + availability of food, degradation of environment

  • - whales, birds, elks, insects, bats


Communication in animals

Communication in Animals

  • Why do animals communicate? How do animals communicate?

  • Chemical

  • pheromones

  • + releaser pheromones cause immediate/specific behavioral changes

  • + primer pheromones cause physiological changes

  • - marking your territory

  • Visual

  • agonistic behavior

  • + displays of aggression

  • courtship behavior

  • + announce participants as non-threatening/potential mates

  • Auditory

  • sounds

  • + whales, crickets, birds

  • Tactile

  • touching


Social behavior

Social Behavior

  • Agonistic Behavior

  • aggression/submission

  • + competition for food, mates, territory

  • + ritualized; reduces injury/energy

  • Dominance Hierarchies

  • power and status relationships among groups

  • + minimize fighting for food/mates

  • Territoriality

  • possession/defense of territory

  • + insures adequate food/space

  • Altruistic Behavior

  • unselfish behavior that appears to reduce fitness

  • + increases inclusive fitness

  • - ground squirrels


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