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Unit XI: Ecology and Animal Behavior. Ecological interactions affect how organisms evolve, and evolutionary change in turn affects ecological relationships. Ecology. Ecology the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment + two types of interactions

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unit xi ecology and animal behavior

Unit XI: Ecology and Animal Behavior

Ecological interactions affect how organisms evolve, and evolutionary change in turn affects ecological relationships.

ecology
Ecology
  • Ecology
  • the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment
  • + two types of interactions
  • - biotic (living)
  • - abiotic (nonliving)
  • + levels of study
  • - population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
  • Population Ecology
  • + population: group of individuals all of the same species living in
  • the same area
  • - describing abundance/distribution of populations
  • + size (total number of individuals = N)
  • + density (total number of individuals per area/volume)
  • + dispersion (clumped, uniform, random)
age structure
Age Structure

Sweden- relatively stable population growth

Mexico- rapidly growing population

United States- relatively stable population growth

survivorship curves
Survivorship Curves

Type I: most individuals die old

Type II: length of survivorship is random

Type III: most individuals die young

population growth
Population Growth
  • Biotic potential
  • maximum growth rate of population under ideal conditions
  • + bacteria divide every 20 minutes
  • + elephants require 2 year gestation period
  • - factors
  • + age at reproductive maturity
  • + clutch size
  • + frequency of reproduction
  • + reproductive lifetime
  • + survivorship of offspring to maturity
  • Carrying Capacity (K)
  • maximum number of individuals a population can sustain
  • + limiting factors
  • - elements that prevent a population from attaining
  • its biotic potential
density dependent factors
Density-dependent Factors
  • Density-dependent factor
  • intensifies as population increases
  • + reduce the population growth by
  • decreasingreproduction or by
  • increasingmortality
  • - parasites/disease, competition,
  • predation, stress
density independent factors
Density-independent Factors
  • Density-independent factor
  • occurs independently of population; unrelated to population size
  • + natural disasters and extremes of climate
calculating growth rate
Calculating Growth Rate
  • r = births - deaths
  • N
  • r = reproductive/growth rate
  • births - deaths = net increase of individuals
  • N • r = births - deaths
  • ΔN = r • N
  • Δt
  • represents the change in the number of individuals over a given time
  • When r is…
  • positive (rmax = intrinsic rate) population size will increase
  • negative, population size will decrease
  • zero, population size remains constant (ZPG)
exponential growth
Exponential Growth

J-shaped curve

logistic growth
Logistic Growth
  • Logistic Growth
  • occurs when limiting
  • factors restrict the size
  • of the population to
  • the carrying capacity (K)
  • ΔN = r • N(K - N)
  • Δt K
  • as population increases,
  • r decreases until N = K,
  • and r = 0

S-shaped/sigmoid curve

life history strategies
Life-history Strategies
  • k selected and r selected species
  • k selected (prudent or equilibrial populations)
  • + produce small numbers of young; lots of parental care
  • - long life expectancy strategy
  • + consequences
  • - increased probability of long term survival
  • - slow to recuperate numbers when population is reduced
  • r selected (prodigal or opportunistic populations)
  • + produce many young; very little parental care
  • - short life expectancy strategy
  • + consequences
  • - can recuperate numbers quickly following population crash
  • - lead risky lives
generation time and body size
Generation Time and Body Size

Which organisms are…

r selected?

k selected?

What about in the plant kingdom?

community ecology
Community Ecology
  • Community Ecology
  • looking at the interactions between populations
  • + interspecific/intraspecific interactions
  • - interactions between populations of different/same species
  • - positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (0)
  • + types
  • - Competition
  • - Predation
  • - Symbiosis
competition
Competition
  • Competition (-/-)
  • interaction between individual organisms that use the same resources
  • present in limited supply
  • - niche: set of resources/conditions necessary for survival
  • + organism’s role/job in the community
  • - intraspecific/interspecific competition
  • + same/different species
  • - types
  • + Interference Competition
  • - animals: overt fighting; plants: secretion of toxins
  • + Exploitative Competition
  • - removal of a resource
  • - Competitive Exclusion Principle- G.F. Gause, Russian biologist
predation
Predation
  • Predation (+/-)
  • eating of live or freshly killed organisms
  • + predators eat prey
  • + parasitism
  • - specialized predators do not actually kill prey (host)
  • + Three hypotheses
  • - When prey population decreases, predator population decreases;
  • When predator population decreases, prey population increases
  • - Prey populations may undergo a regular cycle
  • - Predator populations may undergo a regular cycle
  • + Defense against Predators
  • - cryptic coloration (camouflage)
  • - aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
  • - mimicry
  • + Batesian (harmless species mimics harmful model)
  • + Mullerian (harmful species resemble each other)
symbiosis
Symbiosis
  • Symbiosis
  • close and long term association between organisms of two species
  • + Mutualism (+/+)
  • - both organisms benefit from the interaction
  • + mycorrhizae, lichens
  • + Commensalism (+/0)
  • - one species benefits, but other is unaffected
  • + remora-shark relationship
community composition and the question of stability
Community Composition and the Question of Stability
  • Disturbances
  • events, such as storms, fire, floods, droughts, overgrazing, etc.
  • + damage community, remove organisms, alter resource availability
  • - communities are usually in a state of recovery
  • Ecological Succession
  • change in the composition of species over time
  • + climax community
  • - final successional stage of constant species composition
  • + changes that induce succession
  • - substrate texture
  • - soil pH
  • - soil water potential
  • - light availability
  • - crowding
primary succession
Primary Succession
  • Primary Succession
  • occurs on substrates that never
  • previously supported living things
  • + succession on rock or lava
  • - lichens
  • - bacteria, protists, mosses
  • - insects, other arthropods
  • - r-selected species of plants
  • - k-selected species of plants
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Secondary Succession
  • begins in habitats where communities were destroyed by disturbances
  • + abandoned cropland
ecosystems
Ecosystems
  • Trophic Levels
  • Primary producers
  • + autotrophs (plants, protists,
  • cyanobacteria, chemosynthetic
  • bacteria)
  • Primary consumers
  • + herbivores
  • Secondary consumers
  • + primary carnivores
  • Tertiary consumers
  • + secondary carnivores
  • Detritivores
  • + decomposers (fungi, bacteria,
  • earthworms, insects,
  • scavengers)
ecological efficiency
Ecological Efficiency
  • Ecological Efficiency
  • proportion of energy
  • represented at one trophic level
  • that is transferred to the next
  • + average efficiency=10%
  • - only 10% of productivity
  • is transferred to next level
  • - remaining 90% is
  • consumed by metabolism
food chains and food webs
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Food Chain
  • linear flow chart of who eats whom
  • grass --> zebra --> lion --> vulture
  • Food Webs
  • expanded, more complete
biogeochemical cycles
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Biogeochemical Cycles
  • flow of essential elements from the environment to living things and
  • back to the environment
  • + reservoirs
  • - major storage locations
  • + assimilation
  • - processes through which element incorporates into
  • terrestrial plants and animals
  • + release
  • - processes through which element returns to the environment
hydrologic cycle water cycle
Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle)

Reservoirs: oceans, air, groundwater, glaciers

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil; animals eat/drink

Release: plants transpire; animals/plants decompose

carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle

Reservoirs: atmosphere (CO2), fossil fuels, peat, cellulose

Assimilation: plants via photosynthesis; consumers

Release: respiration and decomposition; burn fossil fuels

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

Reservoirs: atmosphere (N2); soil (ammonium, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate)

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil; animals consume plants/animals

Release: denitrifying and detrivorous bacteria; animal excretion

phosphorous cycle
Phosphorous Cycle

Reservoirs: rocks

Assimilation: plants absorb from soil (phosphate); consumers

Release: decomposition; excretion in waste products

biomes

Biome

  • region of biosphere characteristized by vegetation and
  • adaptations of organisms inhabiting the environment
  • + Tropical rain forest (high temp., heavy rainfall)
  • + Savannahs (grassland with scattered trees)
  • - tropical, but receive less rainfall than rain forest
  • + Temperate grasslands (North American prairie)
  • - receive less water/lower temp. than savannahs
  • + Temperate deciduous forests (warm summer/cold winters)
  • + Deserts (hot and dry)
  • + Taigas (coniferous forests)
  • - precipitation in the form of snow
  • + Tundras (Lambau Field)
  • - permafrost
  • + Fresh water biomes (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers)
  • + Marine biomes (estuaries, intertidal zones, continental shelves,
  • coral reefs, pelagic oceans)
Biomes
animal behavior

Ethology

  • the study of animal behavior
  • nature versus nurture… both?
  • + kinds of animal behavior
  • - Innate Behavior
  • + instinct
  • + fixed action patterns or FAP (Niko Tinbergen)
  • + imprinting* (Konrad Lorenz)
  • - Learned Behavior
  • + associative learning
  • - classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
  • - operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner)
  • + habituation
  • + observational learning
  • + insight
Animal Behavior
animal movement
Animal Movement
  • Kinesis
  • undirected change in speed of movement in response to stimulus
  • + speed up in unfavorable; slow down in favorable
  • - light, touch, air temp., etc.
  • + Avon bug in the bathroom tub
  • Taxis
  • directed movement in response to stimulus
  • + toward/away from stimulus
  • - phototaxis, chemotaxis
  • + mosquitos and CO2
  • Migration
  • long-distance, seasonal movement
  • + availability of food, degradation of environment
  • - whales, birds, elks, insects, bats
communication in animals
Communication in Animals
  • Why do animals communicate? How do animals communicate?
  • Chemical
  • pheromones
  • + releaser pheromones cause immediate/specific behavioral changes
  • + primer pheromones cause physiological changes
  • - marking your territory
  • Visual
  • agonistic behavior
  • + displays of aggression
  • courtship behavior
  • + announce participants as non-threatening/potential mates
  • Auditory
  • sounds
  • + whales, crickets, birds
  • Tactile
  • touching
social behavior
Social Behavior
  • Agonistic Behavior
  • aggression/submission
  • + competition for food, mates, territory
  • + ritualized; reduces injury/energy
  • Dominance Hierarchies
  • power and status relationships among groups
  • + minimize fighting for food/mates
  • Territoriality
  • possession/defense of territory
  • + insures adequate food/space
  • Altruistic Behavior
  • unselfish behavior that appears to reduce fitness
  • + increases inclusive fitness
  • - ground squirrels
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