Kinesiology Laboratory 8. Posture and Gait Analysis. Lateral Plumb Line. Stand so that the line is slightly anterior to lateral malleoli. Anterior/Posterior Plumb Line. *Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet. Normal Vertical Plumb Line Analysis. *. * *.
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Posture and Gait Analysis
*Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet
* Plumb line should be slightly posterior to the center of the hip joint and only slightly anterior to the knee and ankle joint.
Posterior concave curves are termed Lordosis
Posterior convex curves are termed Kyphosis
Flattening or increases in curvature beyond baseline are postural abnormalities that lead to increase stress on joints and surrounding structures.
Plumb line will fall anterior to knee cap
Different Iliac Crest heights
Lateral gluteal fold deviations
Lateral deviations (Scoliosis)
Shortened Achilles Tendon due to increased plantar flexion
Center of gravity shifted forward
Increased lumbar lordosis
Stress on knees
Ankle: Neutral (isometric contraction of dorsiflexors)
Knee: Slight Flexion (eccentric of knee extensors)
Hip: 30 degrees Flexion (isometric of hip extensors)
Trunk: Rotated to Opposite Side (isometric of erector spinae group)
Body weight shifts to stance leg
Ankle: 5-10 degrees of Plantar Flexion (eccentric dorsiflexors)
Knee: 15 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quadriceps)
Hip: Moving into Extension (isometric extensors)
Body weight continues to shift stance foot
Ankle: Dorsiflexion (eccentric plantarflexors)
Knee: Extension (no contraction)
Hip: Extension (concentric extensors and abductors)
Single limb support occurs
Highest level of horizontal displacement of center of gravity and vertical displacement of center of gravity
Ankle: initially dorsiflexion, moving into plantar flexion (for push off) (concentric plantar flexors)
Knee: extension (eccentric quads)
Hip: Hyperextension (isometric extensors, eccentric hip flexors)
Trunk: Rotation to same side
Ankle: Plantar flexion appox. 10-15 degrees (concentric plantar flexors)
Knee: Flexion to 30 degrees (eccentric quads)
Hip: Moving into Flexion (concentric hip flexors)
Ankle: Moves into dorsiflexion (concentric dorsiflexors)
Knee: Flexion (eccentric quads)
Hip: (concentric flexors)
Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexion)
Knee: 60 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quads)
Hip: 25 degrees of Flexion (concentric hip flexors)
Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexors)
Knee: Full Extension (eccentric hamstrings)
Hip: Flexion (eccentric extensors)
Step length is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of the opposite foot. In normal gait, right and left step lengths are similar.
Stride length is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Right and left stride lengths are normally equal.
Cadence or walking rate is calculated in steps per minute.
Walking base is the sum of the perpendicular distances from the points of initial contact of the right and left feet to the line of forward progression.
Foot angle or toe out describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the midpoints of the calcaneus and the second metatarsal head.