Case ― 麥當勞. 物料取得之問題 本地供應商產品及進口物料的整合 → 品質檢驗 → 儲貨 ( 乾貨、冷藏品及冷凍品 ) → 訂單管理 → 載運送貨 … 運作方式 桃園南崁 及 彰化大城 各設一 配銷中心 ，處理金流、物流及資訊流 桃園南崁 → 苗栗以北、花蓮 彰化大城 → 苗栗以南、台中到墾丁. 物流網路問題 1. 網路設計 該蒐集哪些資料 ？ 市場 需求的分佈情況 產品 特性 應該有多少 廠房、倉庫 區位 的規劃 運輸 模式 服務水準 如何設計規劃 ？. 物流網路問題 2. 存貨定位 儲存點 vs. 製造商直送
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Food Companies
Chemicals
Pharmaceuticals
Avg.
# of
WH
3
14
25
- High margin product
- Service not important (or
easy to ship express)
- Inventory expensive
relative to transportation
- Low margin product
- Service very important
- Outbound transportation
expensive relative to inbound
Sources: CLM 1999, Herbert W. Davis & Co; LogicTools
顧客需求量歷史資料
年 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
顧客1 22,346 28,549 19,567 25,457 31,986 21,897 19,854
顧客2 17,835 21,765 19,875 24,346 22,876 14,653 24,987
加總 40,181 50,314 39,442 49,803 54,862 36,550 44,841
顧客需求量歷史資料彙總
平均年需求量 年需求標準差 變異係數(δ/μ)
顧客1 24,237 4,658 0.192
顧客2 20,905 3,427 0.173
加總 45,142 6,757 0.150
彙整後的變異較個別變異之加總來得小
Illinois-Massachusetts cost per mile X Chicago-Boston distance
(lonb, latb)
Dab
(lona, lata)
Annual sales
Inventory turnover ratio=
Average inventory level
Annual flow through warehouse/Inventory turnover ratio
1. Exact algorithms: find optimal solutions
2. Heuristics: find “good” solutions, not necessarily optimal
Example
Example
Distribution costs per unit
Example
$0
D = 50,000
$3
Cap = 200,000
$4
$5
$5
D = 100,000
$2
$4
$1
$2
Cap = 60,000
$2
D = 50,000
Production costs are the same, warehousing costs are the same
Example
D = 50,000
Cap = 200,000
$5 x 140,000
D = 100,000
$2 x 50,000
$1 x 100,000
$2 x 60,000
Cap = 60,000
$2 x 50,000
D = 50,000
Total Costs = $1,120,000
Example
$0
D = 50,000
$3
Cap = 200,000
P1 to WH1$3
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$7
P2 to WH 2$4
$4
$5
$5
D = 100,000
$2
P1 to WH1$4
P1 to WH2$6
P2 to WH1$8
P2 to WH 2$3
$4
$1
$2
Cap = 60,000
$2
D = 50,000
P1 to WH1$5
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$9
P2 to WH 2$4
Example
$0
D = 50,000
$3
Cap = 200,000
P1 to WH1$3
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$7
P2 to WH 2$4
$4
$5
$5
D = 100,000
$2
P1 to WH1$4
P1 to WH2$6
P2 to WH1$8
P2 to WH 2$3
$4
$1
$2
Cap = 60,000
$2
D = 50,000
P1 to WH1$5
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$9
P2 to WH 2$4
Market #1 is served by WH1, Markets 2 and 3
are served by WH2
Example
$0 x 50,000
D = 50,000
$3 x 50,000
Cap = 200,000
P1 to WH1$3
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$7
P2 to WH 2$4
$5 x 90,000
D = 100,000
P1 to WH1$4
P1 to WH2$6
P2 to WH1$8
P2 to WH 2$3
$1 x 100,000
$2 x 60,000
Cap = 60,000
$2 x 50,000
D = 50,000
P1 to WH1$5
P1 to WH2$7
P2 to WH1$9
P2 to WH 2$4
Total Cost = $920,000
Example
Example
工廠2之產能限制
倉庫之輸入與輸出均等限制
倉庫輸出滿足市場需求之限制
Example
Optimal distribution strategy
Simulation Models4
1.用最佳化模式找出幾個最低成本的解，以宏觀的層面，考慮最重要的成本組成元素。
2.用模擬模式評估前面求得的解。
FIGURE 3-18: Sample plot of each SKU by volume and demand
The process of coordinating and allocating production, and distribution strategies and resources to maximize profit or minimize system-wide cost
FIGURE 3-19: The extended supply chain: from manufacturing to order fulfillment