Promoting partnerships in quality assurance the cross border challenge
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Promoting partnerships in quality assurance: the cross-border challenge. World Bank Learning Seminar Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education (Sevres. 18-20 June 2006) Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic (UNESCO) Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin (OECD). Key message.

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Promoting partnerships in quality assurance the cross border challenge l.jpg

Promoting partnerships in quality assurance: the cross-border challenge

World Bank Learning Seminar

Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education

(Sevres. 18-20 June 2006)

Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic (UNESCO)

Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin (OECD)


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Key message

  • Stronger partnerships in quality assurance are necessary because of:

    • Growing mobility of students, professional and people

    • Growing mobility of educational programmes and institutions

    • Diversification of provision in higher education

    • Need for developing countries to develop their capacity in higher education


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Outline

  • Capacity building through cross-border higher education and its challenges

  • Implications for quality assurance of the (UNESCO/OECD) Guidelines for quality provision in cross-border higher education

  • Other UNESCO capacity building instruments

  • Appendix: Latest data on cross-border student mobility


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Capacity building requires tertiary education

Gross Participation Rates in tertiary education (2001)

  • Human capital leads to growth

    • Productivity

    • Innovation

    • Health

  • It takes human capital to train human capital

    • Tertiary education is important for primary and secondary education

  • Monitoring and evaluation are essential to capacity building and require highly trained people

  • The rapid expansion of higher education poses quality issues

Source: Unesco Institute for Statistics


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Building capacity (in tertiary education) through cross-border education

  • Expand access to tertiary education rapidly by supplementing domestic provision

  • Increase the variety and relevance of tertiary education

  • Improve the quality of tertiary education through spillovers and participation in international networks of knowledge


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Capacity building cross-border education


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Student mobility cross-border education

Cost of studying abroad

Recognition of degrees and qualification

Brain drain

Inequity

Programme & Institution mobility

Low quality provision

No quality impact on local system

Cultural relevance

Stability of the system

Challenges of cross-border higher education


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Cross-border higher education presents new challenges for quality assurance

  • Higher education systems are often opaque viewed from abroad, which leaves room for disreputable providers

  • Student, academic and professional mobility induces a strong demand for recognition of foreign degrees and qualifications

  • Quality of cross-border education is a major concern for:

    • Importers of higher education (student protection)

    • Exporters of higher education (reputation)



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(UNESCO/OECD) Guidelines for quality provision in cross-border higher education

  • They are an EDUCATIONAL response to maximise the opportunities and minimise the risks of cross-border higher education


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Principles of the Guidelines respect cross-border higher educationcapacity building principles

  • Voluntary and non-binding

  • Mutual trust and respect among countries

  • Recognition of importance of international collaboration

  • Recognition of national authority and of the diversity of systems

  • Not a standard-setting instrument


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Main (underlying) message cross-border higher education

  • The quality of cross-border higher education is a shared responsibility between importing and exporting countries

    • Quality assurance should cover cross-border education in all its forms (student, academic, programme and institution mobility)

    • Stakeholders should collaborate internationally to enhance the transparency about the quality of HE and about HE systems

    • Cross-border delivery should have the same quality as home delivery


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Main implications for quality assurance cross-border higher education

  • Quality assuranceandRecognition

    • have a comprehensive quality assurance system, internal or external

    • have fair mechanisms for recognition of qualifications

  • Transparency and accessibility of information

    • be transparent about what you do and make the relevant information accessible internationally

  • Collaboration

    • Strengthen your collaboration with other stakeholders nationally, regionally and internationally


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Guidelines and capacity building cross-border higher education

  • The guidelines are independent on the arrangements of cross-border higher education (commercial, aid, partnerships)

  • They leave freedom to countries to scan locally and globally, and then reinvent locally

  • They take into account human, social and cultural needs (and not only economic ones)


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Other UNESCO capacity building tools cross-border higher educationin this area

  • Regional conventions

  • International Information Tool on Recognised Higher Education Institutions

  • Distance education course: Methodological and organisational options in external QA systems (UNESCO-IIEP) (Anglophone Africa 2006)

  • UNESCO Tool-kit on the setting up of regulatory frameworks for Cross Border Education in cooperation with the APQNet (Asia and the Pacific Convention)

  • On-Line Course for Credential Evaluation – (Mediterranean Convention)


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Table showing the development of the regional conventions on the recognition of qualifications in the different regions of the world.

Region

Secretariat

Adopted

Number of parties

Last ratification

Last meeting

Planned meeting

Africa

UNESCO Dakar

Arusha 1981

21

1998

Dakar, 2003

Dakar,

July 2006

Arab

UNESCO Beirut

Paris 1978

14

1991

Beirut, March 2006

2007

Asia & Pacific

UNESCO Bangkok

Bangkok 1983

20

2003

Kunming, May 2005

Seoul, 2007

LAC

IESALC Caracas

Mexico City 1974

18

2005

San Salvador April 2006

Caracas, October 2006

MED

UNESCO Paris

Nice 1976

11

2001

Split, June 2005

Egypt, 2007

Europe

CEPES Bucharest & Council of Europe

Lisbon 1997

49

2005

Strasbourg

June 2005

2007

UNESCO Regional conventions on the recognition of qualifications


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International Information Tool on the recognition of qualifications in the different regions of the world.Recognised Higher Education Institutions

  • Aim: Increase transparency & facilitate students’ informed decision-making

  • The information tool would:

    • be hosted by UNESCO

    • include a comprehensive list of all higher education institutions recognized by a competent national authority

    • be free of charge, easy to access, simple, user friendly, provided online and searchable

  • Pilot: 8-12 countries from different regions and economic development (Dec. 2005 – July 2007)


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Thank you! the recognition of qualifications in the different regions of the world.

[email protected]

[email protected]


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International mobility of students the recognition of qualifications in the different regions of the world.

  • About 2.5 million foreign students in the world in 2004, 85% of whom in the OECD area

  • The majority (61%) of foreign students within the OECD area come from non-OECD countries

  • Student mobility has nearly tripled since 1980 and has increased by 50% since 1998


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25 top destination countries for foreign students in absolute terms (2004)

70%

Source: UIS


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25 top receiving countries in relative terms (2004) absolute terms (2004)

Source: UIS



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Outbound mobility (%) (2004) absolute terms (2004)

Domestic students abroad expressed as a percentage of the country’s tertiary enrolments

Source: UIS


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Internal regional mobility (2004) absolute terms (2004)

Share of international students studying abroad in their region of origin

Source: UIS



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OECD receiving countries in absolute terms (2004)

North America

Europe

Asia-Pacific

OECD

From Africa

17%

79%

4%

12%

From N. America

50%

40%

10%

6%

From S. America

48%

48%

4%

4%

From Asia

41%

30%

29%

45%

From Europe

13%

82%

5%

30%

From Oceania

28%

26%

46%

1%

From WORLD

33%

54%

13%

100%

Origin of foreign students in the OECD area (2003)

Source: OECD


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International mobility of absolute terms (2004)programmes and institutions

  • Educational programme and institution mobility is still limited in scale but grows rapidly, especially in the Asia-Pacific region

    • 33% of all international students enrolled in Australian institutions studied from their country in 2004 (against 24% in 1996 and 37% in 2001)

    • Singapore: more undergraduate students accessed a foreign programme from Singapore than studied abroad in 2000

    • China: 9-fold increase in foreign programmes between 1995 and 2003


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