Notes on Chapter 4 – “New Orleans”. founded by France in 1718; sold to Spain in 1763 but “reclaimed” in 1803 cultural life from the 18th century, encompassing opera, Mardi Gras, dances, parades, and fancy balls. essentially French in character port city
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founded by France in 1718; sold to Spain in 1763 but “reclaimed” in 1803
cultural life from the 18th century, encompassing opera, Mardi Gras, dances, parades, and fancy balls.
essentially French in character
19th-century commercial center, became the largest, most sophisticated city in the South
Race relations somewhat “unique” compared elsewhere in US
slave trade, but also “more relaxed Caribbean culture”
slaves allowed to retain culture, including music.
at least a few "free blacks" lived in New Orleans by 1722.
From 1817 to about 1840 slaves and free blacks were permitted to dance and play music in a field behind the French Quarter called Congo Square.
Persons of mixed ancestry known as Creoles of Color
French rather than English was primary language
Religion – Catholic rather than Protestant
Access to formal education (including the arts)
privileges and opportunities also included civic power, property ownership, and skilled trades
"By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Creoles occupied a position very near the top of the social order and though excluded from certain areas of white interaction, they had created their own social units, equal to and often vastly superior all others in the community.” A few owned cotton and sugar plantations with numerous slaves.
musical performance for many was a "hobby.“
opera and symphonic performances, brass bands.
Typically viewed blues-based, improvised music as unprofessional.
Creoles got the better-paying jobs playing traditional European dances.
Alderman Sidney Story, in attempting to confine the trade of prostitution to a limited area, established a 38-block area that became known as Storyville.
primarily devoted prostitution and “related businesses.”
In August 1917, the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy issued orders forbidding open prostitution within five miles of Army or Navy posts.
Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction eras.
changing economic and political circumstances gradually changed the social strata of New Orleans.
Public segregation by race re-imposed 1877.
"Act 111 of the Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature" - the first of the so-called "Jim Crow" laws - was enacted in 1890; separate cars were required for black and white patrons traveling first class (led to Plessy v. Ferguson)
separate waiting rooms in railroad depot.
outlawing of interracial marriages.
Both black and white workers experienced economic hardship in the 1880s and 1890s.
A huge influx of immigrants competed for available work.
industrial machinery replaced large numbers of workers.
unions organizing many trade/craftsman positions.
Many Creole artisans found themselves completely out of work or operating on a much smaller scale.