Art physics
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 57

Art & Physics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Art & Physics. Equivalents I-VIII Carl Andre, 1966. Equivalent 8 Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978. Equivalent 8 Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978. A Pile of Bricks Unknown Workman Hong Kong 2004. Equivalent 8 Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978. A Pile of Bricks Unknown Workman Hong Kong 2004.

Download Presentation

Art & Physics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Art physics

Art & Physics


Art physics

Equivalents I-VIII

Carl Andre, 1966


Art physics

Equivalent 8

Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978


Art physics

Equivalent 8

Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978

A Pile of Bricks

Unknown Workman Hong Kong 2004


Art physics

Equivalent 8

Carl Andre, Tate Gallery 1978

A Pile of Bricks

Unknown Workman Hong Kong 2004


Art physics

I paint things as I think of them, not as I see them.Pablo Picasso

No one has ever been able to define or synthesize that precarious, splendid, and perhaps untidy instant when the creative process begins. This is what the uniqueness of the artist is all about. The transcendent right of the artist is the right to create even though he may not always know what he is doing.

Norman Cousins


Art physics

I paint things as I think of them, not as I see them.Pablo Picasso

No one has ever been able to define or synthesize that precarious, splendid, and perhaps untidy instant when the creative process begins. This is what the uniqueness of the artist is all about. The transcendent right of the artist is the right to create even though he may not always know what he is doing.

Norman Cousins


Art physics

According to relativistic physics, space contracts as speed increases.

At the speed of light

all space is here

all time is now

For us, time seems to be instant by instant, although we never seem able to capture that instant.

As soon as we try to think of the present moment (the now) it has already become the past ….. and has therefore slipped away.

Nor is it possible to try and see the present before it arrives, because it is still in the future …. and is therefore out of reach.

“There is no there, there.”

Gertrude Stein (1874-1946)

Gertrude Stein

(Picasso, 1906)


Art physics

Hermann Minkowski expressed the scientific point-of-view in 1908.

“Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.”

Picasso had already expressed the artistic point of view in 1907.

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon


Art physics

Dove with Green Peas

(Picasso, 1912)

“Both art and physics attempt to assemble from parts a whole which by itself is indistinct in such a way that the resulting order creates distinctness and clarity.”

Cubism and Relativity in a letter from Albert Einstein, Art Journal XXV, 1946

“These new works look like a bunch of little cubes.”

(Louis Vauxcelles)


Art physics

In cubism, objects were fractured into visual fragments and then rearranged so that the viewer would not have to move through space (or time) to view them.

Segments from all viewpoints - front, back, top, bottom and sides - enter the viewer’s eye simultaneously.

Ma jolie

(Picasso, 1911)


Art physics

Normally, to view a cube the viewer must walk around the object, thus requiring relocation to different points in space and, sequentially, to different moments in time.

In the cubist world, the viewer doesn’t have to move either in space or time. Perspective (depth) and causality (time) are absent.


Art physics

view of square

from 3-d space

view of square from

within 2-d space

view of cube

from within

3-d space

unwrapped cube

within 3-d space

view of cube

from 4-d space


Art physics

Cubism provided the first new way to perceive space since Euclid 2300 years earlier.

Cubist painters fused Monet’s single-viewpoint series into single works with multiple viewpoints.

Gare St. Lazare(Monet, 1877)

Violin(Picasso, 1912)

Multiple paintings, single viewpoint

Single painting, multiple viewpoint


Art physics

Other cubist painters included Georges Braque (1882-1963), Juan Gris (1887-1927) and Fernand Leger(1881-1955).

Houses at L’Estaque

(Georges Braque, 1908)

Castle at La Roche-Guyon

(Georges Braque, 1909)


Art physics

Three Lamps

(Juan Gris, 1910--11)

Landscape at Ceret

(Juan Gris, 1913)


Art physics

Nudes in the Forest(Fernand Léger, 1909-1910)


Art physics

The City(Fernand Léger, 1919)


Art physics

Composition Architecturale(Fernand Léger)


Art physics

Partie de Campagne(Fernand Léger, 1954)


Art physics

In modern physics, light is (i.e. it is absolute); space and time change in relation to it.

“The objective world simply is; it does not happen.”

“Only to the gaze of my consciousness does a section of this world come to life as a fleeting image in space which continuously changes in time.”

Hermann Weyl (1885-1955)


Art physics

Although the velocity of light is constant for all observers, the frequency of emitted light from moving objects will appear different. If the tram moves towards the observer, he will see the light as if its frequency were greater (it appears bluer); if it is moving away, he will see the light as if its frequency were lower (it appears redder). This is the well-known Doppler effect.

stationary

approaching

receding


Art physics

For the observer on the tram, scenery ahead of the tram will appear bluer, scenery to the rear of the tram will appear redder. To the sides will be a mixture of colours.

At the speed of light all colours merge as space flattens into a plane and the front and rear become one. Strong individual colours would disappear and only neutral tones - white, black, brown, grey - would remain (the colours used by the cubist painters).

Portrait of Daniel-Henry

Kahnweiler(Picasso, 1910)

Ma Jolie

(Picasso, 1911)


Art physics

Shadows are also affected by relativistic effects.

In everyday experience light casts shadows so that objects have light and dark areas. But at relativistic speeds, space is so distorted that all areas are seen simultaneously, making it difficult to distinguish between light and dark.

In art, disegno (contour drawing) is based on the principle that things in high contrast appear nearer than things in low contrast.

high contrast

low contrast

Caravaggio


Art physics

In many of his still-life cubist paintings, Georges Braque inverted this technique by creating a black area where convention would put white.

Braque’s work is characterized by disordered shading and flattening of space, exactly as one might expect when travelling at lightspeed.


Art physics

Cubism denies the traditional illusion of depth by means of perspective, as can be seen clearly in the cubist paintings by Picasso.

Portrait of Ambroise

Vollard (1910)

Girl with a Mandolin (1910)

The Aficionado (1912)


Art physics

Multiple viewpoints are evident in Picasso’s work.

The hat indicates eye-level.

The face has one viewpoint for the eyes, another for the mouth and a third for the nose

The floor indicates downward

The ceiling indicates upward

The chair has at least two points of view

Portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter(Pablo Picasso, 1937)


Art physics

Could Picasso’s work be considered as the viewpoint of an observer in a 4th (spatial) dimension?

Perhaps, but in a limited sense, since not all viewpoints are shown.

Portrait of Dora Maar(Pablo Picasso, 1937)


Art physics

The suppression of depth continued and is apparent in the work of other artists such as Russians Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935) and Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) and Dutchman Piet Mondrian (1872-1944).

Composition VI

(Kandinsky, 1913)

Composition in Blue, Grey and Pink

(Mondrian, 1913)

An Englishman in Moscow

(Malevich, 1914)


Art physics

Relativity causes contraction of space, giving an observer a distorted view of his surroundings and the illusion that height elongates. This odd consequence of the special theory of relativity did not become widely known until the 1920’s.

C/2

But distortion in art, especially elongation of figures, began as early as the 1880’s with Cezanne and Seurat and later with the Italian Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920).

Portraits by Modigliani


Art physics

Elongation was taken to the extreme by the Swiss sculptor Giacometti.

His stick-like figures are just how one would expect people to appear to an observer travelling almost at lightspeed.

Alberto Giacometti, 1901-1966

Man pointing

Woman standing


Art physics

In the 1870’s German physicist Herman Helmholtz popularized the notion of non-Euclidean space and higher geometries.

He challenged Kant’s theory of a priori knowledge (knowledge that is truth not opinion) by saying that our knowledge of space is a belief that coincides with our perception of the world.

French mathematician Henri Poincaré supported this view: “The fundamental hypotheses of geometry are not experimental facts. It is, however, the observation of certain physical phenomena which accounts for the choice of certain hypotheses among all possible ones … the group chosen is only more convenient than the others and one cannot say that Euclidean geometry is true and the geometry of Lobachevsky is false.”

Helmholtz 1821-1894

Poincaré 1854-1912


Art physics

In 1946, based on Helmhotz’s concept of visual perception, Adelbert Ames Jr. constructed the illusion, now known as the Ames Room, which creates two illusions.

In the static illusion, the room appears cubic when viewed monocularly from a special viewing point (the room is actually trapezoidal).

Secondly, within an Ames Room people or objects can appear to grow or shrink when moving from one corner to the other.


Art physics

When you look into an Ames Room (through a peephole - to remove any cues from stereoscopic vision), the room looks normal and cubic, but its true shape is cleverly distorted.

The floor, ceiling, some walls, and the far windows are actually trapezoidal surfaces.

Although the floor appears level, it is actually at an incline (the far left corner is much lower than the near right corner).

The walls appear perpendicular to the floor, although they are actually slanted outwards.


Art physics

Our perception of the world is affected by our familiarity with the geometry of 3-dimensional space and the expectations it creates.


Art physics

Speculation on higher dimensions and how to visualize them was brilliantly portrayed in Edwin Abbott’s 1880 novel Flatland, which challenges people to imagine what it would be like to view our world from the fourth dimension.

The hero, a square living in two-dimensional space, is visited by a sphere from three-dimensional space who takes him out of his flatland to to experience the view from the third dimension. The square annoys the sphere by suggesting that the view from four-dimensions might be even better and on his return is imprisoned for spreading the news of his adventure.

Edwin Abbott (1838-1926)


Art physics

3-d space

sphere

2-d space

circle


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

If a doughnut encounters flatland, flatlanders will see the doughnut as two circles. An observer in three dimensions will see only one doughnut.


Art physics

“Cubism breaks with Renaissance perspective. It views objects relatively; that is, from several points of view, no one of which has exclusive authority. And in so dissecting objects it sees them simultaneously from all sides - from above and below, from inside and outside … Thus, to the three dimensions of the Renaissance which have held good as constituent facts throughout so many centuries there is added a fourth one - time … The presentation of objects from several points of view introduces a principle which is intimately bound up with modern life - simultaneity. It is a temporal coincidence that Einstein should have begun his famous work Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper, in 1905 with a careful definition of simultaneity.”

Sigfried Gideon (1938), art historian

Violin(Picasso 1913)


Art physics

Some physicists argue against there being any analogy between cubism and relativity in their treatment of space.

“The cubist space, for example, tended to be a two-dimensional surface which excluded the third; the mathematics of relativity works in four-dimensional space-time. And one can continue indefinitely; looking for similarities is quite useless.”

Gésa Szamosi

(Science Director, Concordia University)

What this statement overlooks is that at the speed of light depth disappears.

rear

front

speed = c

side


Art physics

Illusionist perspectivist art has four dimensions

three perspective to locate position

one of time to locate the moment

Cubism eliminates the moment in time.

In a cubist painting time does not exist.

Cubism reduces art to two dimensions.

There is no next or previous moment for the viewer to imagine

Cubism destroys perspective by eliminating depth

It thus allows the viewer to escape from 4-dimensional spacetime

According to Einstein, this is the viewpoint of an observer travelling at the speed of light.


Art physics

Creation (Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475 - 1564)


  • Login