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William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Introduction. Elements of Drama. Elements of Drama. Drama (play) Characters Conflict Plot Climax Resolution. A story written to be performed by actors. Features: Similar to a novel or short story. Dialogue Acts & Scenes Playwright

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William shakespeare s romeo and juliet

William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet



Elements of Drama

Elements of drama
Elements of Drama

Drama (play)






A story written to be performed by actors.


  • Similar to a novel or short story


Acts & Scenes



Stage directions



Dramatic Effect

  • Characters tell the story in a play through dialogue, the speeches of the characters.

  • Basic units of a play are acts, which are further divided into scenes.

  • Author of the play

  • Text

  • Tell how the work is to be performed, or staged.

  • Sets are the constructions indicating where the drama takes place.

  • Movable objects, like swords or pens, that actors use onstage.

  • All of the elements of drama combine to produce the vivid illusion of reality known as the dramatic effect.

Types of drama
Types of Drama


tragic hero

tragic flaw



  • A tragedyshows the downfall or death of the tragic hero, or main character.

    • Serious plot that ends in disaster for the main character.

  • In ancient Greek drama, the hero was an outstanding person brought low by a tragic flaw, a mistaken action or defect in character.

  • Greek tragedy included a chorus, a group of performers who commented on the action.

  • Shakespeare sometimes used a single actor to perform the role of the character.

  • Comedy stresses the weaknesses of ordinary people or of society itself.

  • Happy ending, usually after an amusing series of predicaments.

There are two types of plays, tragedy and comedy, created by the ancient Greeks.

William shakespeare 1564 1616
William Shakespeare1564 - 1616

  • William Shakespeare is regarded as the greatest writer in English.

  • His plays have been performed for over 400 years.

  • He is known for beautiful use of the English language.

  • Intro to Shakespeare -

  • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=D00F34B2-B123-45FA-B420-F3992EEDDBD3&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US#

  • Shakespeare’s impact on English -

    • He introduced many new words into the language:

      • Leapfrog, majestic, hint, lonely, excellent, and gloomy

      • “Catch cold”, “laugh it off” and “fair play”

    • Famous lines:

      • From Hamlet – To be, or not to be: that is the question

      • From Romeo and Juliet - Parting is such sweet sorrow….

      • From Julius Caesar - Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears

  • Almost 400 years after William Shakespeare’s death, his work continues to influence the study of English literature.

Romeo and juliet characters
Romeo and Juliet - Characters

  • Chorus

  • Escalus

  • Paris

  • Montague

  • Lady Montague

  • Romeo

  • Mercutio

  • Benvolio

  • Abram

  • Balthasar

  • Capulet

  • Lady Capulet

  • Juliet

  • Nurse

  • Peter

  • Sampson

  • Gregory

  • Friar Lawrence

  • Friar John

  • An Apothecary

  • Prince of Verona

  • A young count, related to the Prince

  • Romeo’s father

  • Romeo’s mother

  • Son to Montague

  • Friend to Romeo and kinsman to the Prince

  • Cousin to Romeo , nephew to Montague

  • Servant to Montague

  • Servant to Romeo

  • Juliet’s father

  • Juliet’s mother

  • Daughter to Capulet

  • Juliet’s nanny

  • Servant to Juliet’s nurse

  • Servant to Capulet

  • Servant to Capulet

  • Franciscan

  • Franciscan

  • Pharmacist

  • Setting Verona, Italy

Act i

Act I

Literary Terms


A comment made by a character, but is not heard by the other characters onstage.

  • Example:

    • Act I, scene 1

  • Sampson and Gregory speak without Abram hearing.

Blank verse
Blank Verse

A metrical pattern known as unrhymed iambic pentameter.

Romeo & Juliet is written in blank verse.


Creating the image of imaginary persons in literature.

Characterization creates plot and is revealed by actions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and the other characters’ thoughts or words about him.


Example of a Couplet:

"My words remain below, Never to heaven go“ -Claudius

Shakespeare's Hamlet

Two lines back to back of verse (poetry)

A couplet rhymes

The lines are of the same metrical length

They form a single unit.


an adjective that expresses a characteristic of a person or thing.

“Catherine the Great”

“Dennis the Menace”

Figurative language figure of speech
Figurative language/ Figure of speech

the expressive use of language in which words are used in other ways than their literal senses so as to suggest and produce images in a reader’s mind bypassing logic.


a figure of speech saying a person, idea, or object is something else.

And take my tears, which are love’s wine. - John Donne


a figure of speech comparing two things using “like,” “as,” “as if,” or “such” .


a play on words or the humorous use of a word emphasizing a different meaning or application.

Sometimes referred to as the “lowest form of humor”.


Did you hear about the guy whose whole left side was cut off? He's all right now.

I couldn't quite remember how to throw a boomerang, but eventually it came back to me.


An indirect reference to something everyone knows about.

Example – The Resurrection


A character who provides contrast to another character .

Most of the time they contrast the protagonist to show some advantage of the second character.

Act ii

Act II

Literary Terms


Makes a comparison between two or more things that are similar in some ways but otherwise unalike.

So, what’s the difference between a metaphor, simile, and analogy?

Metaphor – says one thing is another

Simile – compares two things to create a

new meaning

Analogy – shows how two things are similar using

logical connections


  • Descriptive or figurative language used to create word pictures for the reader.

  • The imagesare created by details of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or movement.

  • Often created by metaphors and similes.

    • Example - I want to fly like an eagle.


  • Differences between appearance and reality, or expectation and result.

    • Verbal irony

    • Dramatic irony

    • Situational irony


  • A speech by one character that is addressed to another character or characters.

    • Example - Act I Prince of Verona’s speech after the street scene.


  • A combination of words, or parts of words, that contradict each other.

  • Examples:

    • Deafening silence

    • Honest thief

    • Wise fool

    • Bittersweet


  • A type of figurative language in which a nonhuman is given human characteristics.

  • Example - Mother Goose’s

    The Cat and the Fiddle

    Hey diddle, Diddle,

    The cat and the fiddle,

    The cow jumped over the moon;

    The little dog laughed

    To see such sport,

    And the dish ran away with the spoon.


A long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage.

Act iii


Literary Terms


An indirect reference to something everyone knows about.

Example – The Resurrection


Turning point in story – most suspenseful event.

After the climax, the falling action is apparent.


Anything that stands for something else.

In addition to its own meaning, a symbol also represents abstract ideas.

Act iv

Act IV

Literary Terms


the leading character of a drama, novel, etc.

This is not always the hero, but is always the principal and central character whose rival is the antagonist.

The term is from the Greek protagonistes, meaning “first actor in a drama.”


The character who strives against another main character.

This character opposes the hero or protagonist in drama.

The term is also used to describe one who contends with or opposes another in a fight, conflict, or battle of wills.

Act v

Act V

Literary Terms


Reason or reasons behind a character's action; what induces a character to do what he does; motives.

In Romeo and Juliet, love motivates the title characters.

In Shakespeare's Macbeth, ambition (lust for power) motivates the title character and his wife to murder the king. 


The central and dominating idea of a literary work; the thesis.

In addition, the term means a message or moral implicit in any work of art.


Prentice Hall Literature Textbook – Grade Nine.

"Guide to Literary Terms” eNotes: Guide to Literary Terms. Ed. Penny Satoris. Seattle: Enotes.com Inc, October 2002. eNotes.com. 16 November 2008. <http://www.enotes.com/literary-terms