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Michigan’s Forests Topic 1104. History of Logging in Michigan Mr. Christensen. Today’s Objectives. Identify characteristics of Michigan’s pre-settlement forests Identify individuals and events that impacted Michigan’s forests Describe Michigan’s Logging era and its aftermath

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Michigan s forests topic 1104

Michigan’s ForestsTopic 1104

History of Logging in Michigan

Mr. Christensen


Today s objectives
Today’s Objectives

  • Identify characteristics of Michigan’s pre-settlement forests

  • Identify individuals and events that impacted Michigan’s forests

  • Describe Michigan’s Logging era and its aftermath

  • Describe Michigan’s forests today, their economic impact, and how they are managed


The forests of michigan in 1840
The Forests of Michigan in 1840

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Michigan s logging era
Michigan’s Logging Era

  • 1840’s NewYork’s Forests cannot meet demand

  • From 1869 to 1900 Michigan is NO. 1 in logging

  • Michigan’s lumber value exceeds the value of the California gold rush by 1 Billion $

  • 160 Billion Board Feet (four foot by eight foot stack five times to the moon and back)


Michigan in 1840

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Michigan logging
Michigan Logging

  • THE TARGET Cork Pine 300 years old 200 feet tall and 5 to 7 feet in diameter

  • Land is $1.25/acre

  • 1862--Homestead Act—160 acres

  • Surveyors

  • Timber Cruisers—look for Pine Groves


Logging camps
Logging Camps

  • Two foremen and seventy men

  • 20 teams of horses

  • 7 yoke of oxen

  • Cold Weather Job—ice roads

  • 4:00 AM until Dusk

  • Choppers/Sawyers/River Hogs/Boomers and Jam Crackers


Shanty Boys

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Choppers

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Skidders

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Logging in winter
Logging in Winter

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/


Big wheels invented by silas overpack in 1776
Big Wheels invented by Silas Overpack in 1776

Silas Overpack

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html



From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Gabriel Horn http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Log marks
Log Marks http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Log Marks 1842

  • Log Piracy

  • Assist in sorting process

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/


Boomers http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Log Jam job for the Jam Crackers http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Log jam on the grand river in 1883
Log Jam on the Grand River in 1883 http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Jam Crackers would dynamite the log jams to break them up

From Michigan History Magazine at : http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/


Narrow gage railways
Narrow Gage Railways http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Introduced by Winfield Scott Gerrish in 1776

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/


Sawmill at menominee 1832
Sawmill at Menominee (1832) http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/



From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Michigan 1840 http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

p

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Results of logging
Results of Logging http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

  • Lumber Barons—men who made their fortunes in logging

  • Stumps were cleared and farming began

  • Massive fires in the debris and underbrush in 1871(Manistee/Saginaw 2 million acres), 1881(thumb 280 dead) and 1908 2 million acres

  • Erosion



From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html


Return of michigan s forests
Return of Michigan’s Forests http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

  • Conservation Movement Teddy Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot and John Muir

  • 1895 First State Park (Mackinac Island)

  • 1900 First State Forests (Roscommon & Crawford Counties

  • Great Depression—Land Abandoned—Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 1933


Michigan 50 Camps http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Planted 500 million trees

Fought Fires

Built 7,000 miles of road

Improved Streams

Stocked Lakes with 150 million fish

Build Seney Wildlife Refuge


State Forest System http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

Four Million Acres

20% of Michigan’s Forests

2nd largest state forest system

National Forests

2.6 Million Acres

Threats

Intensive browsing of deer

Forest ownership/parcelization


Michigan s forests today
Michigan’s Forests Today http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

  • 11.5 Billion Trees, more are added each year, they cover 53% of Michigan

  • Trees are smaller, fewer pine, tamarack and hemlock more aspens, red maple and paper birch.

  • Tallest tree—white pine 201 feet in (Marquette County) and largest tree Black Willow (Grand Traverse County)


Michigan s forest industry today
Michigan’s Forest Industry Today http://www.dsisd.k12.mi.us/mff/

  • Forestry is a 12 Billion $ industry plus 3+ billion $ from forest based recreation

  • Forest industry provides 200,000 jobs and over 1.3 billion board feet of lumber annually

  • Highly mechanized forest harvest and replanting


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