By sunha lee jen mello mike parr
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Tundra Biome. BY: Sunha Lee Jen Mello Mike Parr. Definition. Tundra- Tundra comes from the Finnish word "tunturia", which means a barren land or treeless plain. Background. Tundra is the coldest of all biomes.

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BY: Sunha Lee Jen Mello Mike Parr

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Tundra Biome

BY:

Sunha Lee

Jen Mello

Mike Parr


Definition

  • Tundra-Tundra comes from the Finnish word "tunturia", which means a barren land or treeless plain.


Background

  • Tundra is the coldest of all biomes.

  • It is known for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients and short growing seasons.


Location

  • Stretches from Alaska to the Scandinavian Countries


Types of Tundra's

  • Arctic Tundra

  • Alpine Tundra


Arctic Tundra

  • The Arctic Tundra is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • Arctic Tundra is known for the colder conditions.

  • Growing season ranges from 50-60 days.


Arctic Tundra Continued

  • Average winter temperature is –34 C.

  • Average summer temperature is 3-12 C. This is warm enough to sustain life.

  • Yearly precipitation, including snow melt, is 15-25 cm.

  • There is a permanent frozen subsoil called permafrost.


Arctic Tundra Continued

  • There aren't any deep rooted plants in the Arctic Tundra but there are about 1,700 species of plants.


Arctic Tundra Plants

  • Low shrubs, Sedges, Reindeer mosses, Liverworts, Grasses, 400 varieties of flowers, crustose, and foliose lichen. The most common type of bush is the Bearberry.


Arctic Tundra Plants Continued

  • All plants are adapted to the sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil.

  • Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures. This also protects them by the snow during the winter.

  • They also carry out photosynthesis without a lot of light.


Arctic Animals

  • Animals are able to adapt to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer since the winters are so cold. Birds have an extra layer of fat keeping them warmer.


Arctic Tundra Mammals

  • Herbivore mammals consist of lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels.


Arctic Tundra Insects

  • Insects consist of mosquitoes, flies, moths,

  • grasshoppers, black flies and arctic bumblebees.


Arctic Tundra Birds

  • Birds consist of ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns, snow-birds, and various species of gulls.


Arctic Tundra Fish

  • Fish consist of cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout.


Alpine Tundra

  • Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitudes where trees cannot grow.

  • Growing season is approximately 180 days.

  • Average temperature at night is usually below freezing.


Alpine Tundra Continued

  • Soil in the Alpine Tundra is well drained.

  • Yearly precipitation is just 10-50 cm.

  • Average Temperature range is –57 to -7 C during the winter and –1 to 16 C in the summer.


Alpine Tundra Mammals

  • Similar to the Arctic Tundra animals, there are pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep and elk.


Alpine Tundra Insects

  • Alpine insects consist of springtails, beetles, grasshoppers and butterflies.


Tundra Food Web


People

  • The people inhabiting the Tundra are Eskimos, yet they liked to be called “Inuit” which means “the People.”


The Inuit’s life style

  • They either live in wooden or concrete houses most of the year and sleep in skin or cloth tents when they are hunting.

  • Inuit children attend school and they learn their native language as well as English.


Businesses

  • Oil is a huge business in Alaska. Although many people in Alaska and Canada profit from this industry, it has its negatives. Oil spills and oil drilling facilities hurts the hunting and fishing industries.


Conclusion

  • For the future, there are many environmental groups who are working to preserve the tundra cultures. There will be additions of national parks preserving the wildlife and people helping to save these arctic and alpine tundra lands.


Test questions

1. Where does the word ‘Tundra’ come from?

2. What are the two types of

Tundra’s?

3. What are the ‘Eskimos’ named?


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