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W. Age of Exploration . W. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Moluccas A New Player  Europe Marco Polo, 1271 Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet” . Map of the Known World pre- 1492. W. Motives for European Exploration.

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W

Age of

Exploration


W

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Moluccas

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Marco Polo, 1271

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”



W

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Gold

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

Gold, Glory, God


New Maritime Technologies

W

Better Maps

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant


New Technology

W

Caravel

Wheel lock Musket


Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • Started School for Navigation, 1419



Portuguese Maritime Empire

Exploring the west coast of Africa.

Bartolomeo Dias, 1487-tip of Africa.

Vasco da Gama, 1498-India.

Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).


Columbus [1451-1506]





Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”


The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II





Why would the

“Columbian Exchange”

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??


Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers


Treasurefrom the Americas!

35 million pesos between 1596-1600





Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope’s Line of Demarcation

Spain

Portugal


Father Bartolome

de Las Casas

Spanish Monk who protested the Spanish cruelty towards Native Americans

New Laws  1542



W

Impact of European Expansion

  • Native American populations ravaged by disease.

    • Taino became extinct

    • 1519 – 26 million

    • 1605 – 2 million

  • 11-15 million Africans enslaved

  • Spread of Christianity


  • W

    • Columbian Exchange

    • Influx of gold & silver into Europe = inflation.

      • 10.5 million from 1581-1600

  • Deepened European rivalries.

  • Funding voyages of exploration led to

    • Joint-stock companies

    • Entrepreneurs

    • Mercantilism  Capitalism


  • W

    • New Patterns of World Trade


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