The muscular system
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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM. COACH O’ROURKE BRAZOS HS ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. FIRST OF ALL. Welcome Back!!!!!!!!!!! I hope you had a great break. Time to get to work!!!!!!!!!!. The Muscular System (No, that’s not me!.

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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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The muscular system

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • COACH O’ROURKE

  • BRAZOS HS

  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


First of all

FIRST OF ALL

  • Welcome Back!!!!!!!!!!!

  • I hope you had a great break.

  • Time to get to work!!!!!!!!!!


The muscular system no that s not me

The Muscular System(No, that’s not me!


Or everything you ever wanted to know about muscles but were afraid to ask

or “Everything you ever wanted to know about Muscles, but were afraid to ask” !!!


The muscular system

Did you know that ?

  • more than 50% of body weight is muscle !

  • And muscle is made up of proteins and water


The muscular system1

The Muscular System

  • Muscles are responsible for all movement of the body

  • There are three basic types of muscle

    • Skeletal

    • Cardiac

    • Smooth


Info about muscles

Info About Muscles

  • Only body tissue able to contract

  • create movement by flexingand extendingjoints

  • Body energyconverters (many muscle cells contain many mitochondria)


3 types of muscles

3 Types of Muscles


Three types of muscle

Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth

Three types of muscle


Classification of muscle

Classification of Muscle


Characteristics of muscle

Characteristics of Muscle

  • Skeletal and smooth muscle are elongated

  • Muscle cell = muscle fiber

  • Contraction of a muscle is due to movement of microfilaments (protein fibers)

  • All muscles share some terminology

    • Prefixes myo and mys refer to muscle

    • Prefix sarco refers to flesh


Shapes of muscles

Shapes of Muscles

  • Triangular- shoulder, neck

  • Spindle- arms, legs

  • Flat- diaphragm, forehead

  • Circular- mouth, anus


Skeletal muscle

Skeletal Muscle

  • Most are attached by tendons to bones

  • Cells have more than one nucleus (multinucleated)

  • Striated- have stripes, banding

  • Voluntary- subject to conscious control

  • Tendons are mostly made of collagen fibers

  • Found in the limbs

  • Produce movement, maintain posture, generate heat, stabilize joints


Structure of skeletal muscle

Structure of skeletal muscle

  • Each cell (fiber) is long and cylindrical

  • Muscle fibers are multi-nucleated

  • Typically 50-60mm in diameter, and up to 10cm long

  • The contractile elements ofskeletal muscle cells aremyofibrils


Skeletal muscle summary

Skeletal muscle - Summary

  • Voluntary movement of skeletal parts

  • Spans joints and attached to skeleton

  • Multi-nucleated, striated, cylindrical fibres


Smooth muscle

Smooth Muscle

  • No striations

  • Spindle shaped

  • Single nucleus

  • Involuntary- no conscious control

  • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs


Smooth muscle1

Smooth muscle

  • Lines walls of viscera

  • Found in longitudinal or circular arrangement

  • Alternate contraction of circular & longitudinal muscle in the intestine leads to peristalsis


Structure of smooth muscle

Structure of smooth muscle

  • Spindle shaped uni-nucleated cells

  • Striations not observed

  • Actin and myosin filaments are present( protein fibers)


Smooth muscle summary

Smooth muscle - Summary

  • Found in walls of hollow internal organs

  • Involuntary movement of internal organs

  • Elongated, spindle shaped fibre with single nucleus


Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • Striations

  • Branching cells

  • Involuntary

  • Found only in the heart

  • Usually has a single nucleus, but can have more than one


Cardiac muscle1

Cardiac muscle

  • Main muscle of heart

  • Pumping mass of heart

  • Critical in humans

  • Heart muscle cells behave as one unit

  • Heart always contracts to it’s full extent


Structure of cardiac muscle

Structure of cardiac muscle

  • Cardiac muscle cells (fibers) are short, branched and interconnected

  • Cells are striated & usually have 1 nucleus

  • Adjacent cardiac cells are joined via electrical synapses (gap junctions)

  • These gap junctions appear as dark lines and are called intercalated discs


Cardiac muscle summary

Cardiac muscle - Summary

  • Found in the heart

  • Involuntary rhythmic contraction

  • Branched, striated fibre with single nucleus and intercalated discs


Muscle control

Type of muscle

Nervouscontrol

Type of control

Example

Controlled by CNS

Voluntary

Lifting a glass

Regulated by ANS

Involuntary

Heart beating

Controlled by ANS

Involuntary

Peristalsis

Muscle Control

Skeletal

Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth


Types of responses

Types of Responses

  • Twitch-

    • A single brief contraction

    • Not a normal muscle function

  • Tetanus

    • One contraction immediately followed by another

    • Muscle never completely returns to a relaxed state

    • Effects are compounded


Where does the energy come from

Where Does the Energy Come From?

  • Energy is stored in the muscles in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)

  • ATP comes from the breakdown of glucose during Cellular Respiration

  • This all happens in the Mitochondria of the cell

  • When a muscle is fatigued (tired) it is unable to contract because of lack of Oxygen


Exercise and muscles

Exercise and Muscles

  • Isotonic- muscles shorten and movement occurs ( most normal exercise)

  • Isometric- tension in muscles increases, no movement occurs (pushing one hand against the other)


How are muscles attached to bone

How are Muscles Attached to Bone?

  • Origin-attachment to a movable bone(Arm)

  • Insertion- attachment to an immovable bone. (Torso)

  • Muscles are always attached to at least 2 points

  • Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone


Muscle attachments

Insertion

Origin

Muscle Attachments


Flexion

Types of Musculo-Skeletal Movement

Flexion


Extension

Extension


Hyperextension

Hyperextension


Abduction adduction circumduction

Abduction, Adduction & Circumduction


Rotation

Rotation


More types of movement

More Types of Movement……

  • Inversion- turn sole of foot medially

  • Eversion- turn sole of foot laterally

  • Pronation- palm facing down

  • Supination-palm facing up

  • Opposition- thumb touches tips of fingers on the same hand


The muscular system

The Skeletal MusclesThere are about 650 muscles in the human body. They enable us to move, maintain posture and generate heat. In this section we will only study a sample of the major muscles.


Sternocleidomastoideus

Sternocleidomastoideus

Flexes and Rotates Head


Masseter

Masseter

Elevate Mandible


Temporalis

Temporalis

Elevate & Retract Mandible


Trapezius

Trapezius

Extend Head, Adduct, Elevate or Depress Scapula


Latissimus dorsi

Latissimus Dorsi

Extend, Adduct & Rotate Arm Medially


Deltoid

Deltoid

Abduct, Flex & Extend Arm


Pectoralis major

Pectoralis Major

Flexes, adducts & rotates arm medially


Biceps brachii

Biceps Brachii

Flexes Elbow Joint


Triceps brachii

Triceps Brachii

Extend Elbow Joint


Rectus abdominus

Rectus Abdominus

Flexes Abdomen


External oblique

External Oblique

Compress Abdomen


External intercostals

External Intercostals

Elevate ribs


Internal intercostals

Internal Intercostals

Depress ribs


Diaphragm

Diaphragm

Inspiration


Forearm muscles

Forearm Muscles

  • Flexor carpi—Flexes wrist

  • Extensor carpi—Extends wrist

  • Flexor digitorum—Flexes fingers

  • Extensor digitorum—Extends fingers

  • Pronator—Pronates

  • Supinator—Supinates


Gluteus maximus

Gluteus Maximus

Extends & Rotates Thigh Laterally


Rectus femoris

Rectus Femoris

Flexes Thigh, Extends Lower Leg


Gracilis

Gracilis

Adducts and Flexes Thigh


Sartorius

Sartorius

Flexes Thigh, & Rotates Thigh Laterally


Biceps femoris

Biceps Femoris

Extends Thigh & Flexes Lower Leg


Tibialis anterior

Tibialis Anterior

Dorsiflexes and Inverts Foot


Gastrocnemius

Gastrocnemius

Plantar Flexes Foot & Flex Lower Leg


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