Settlement. Chapter 4 Human environment elective. Settlement : a place where people live. Settlements vary in size, location and functions.
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Human environment elective
Settlement: a place where people live. Settlements vary in size, location and functions.
Site: the piece of land a settlement is built on. Physical factors often determine the location of a settlement as things like slope, water supply, defence, building materials and resources often were and are considered.
By examining the land of an area you can explain why or why not this site is suitable for settlement
Situation: this is when you describe the settlement in relation to the surrounding lands and other towns.
The land around a settlement is the area the settlement might expand into and is important to recognise positive and negative factors in the situation.
Physical factors that influence the location of settlement
Drainage: water supply is vital but the land must be well drained (fear of flooding)
Soil quality: Is the surrounding land fertile for crops
Altitude: lowland areas are easier to build upon and farm in contrast to exposed highland areas.
Aspect: the direction an area is in can see an increase in sunshine hours, temperatures and less rainfall.
Density and Distribution
Amount of people per km2Spread of people across an area
4 Settlement Patterns
Factors influencing each pattern
2/3 details on why and when each type of pattern occurred
1100 – 1500 Normans
1500 – 1700 Plantation era
1700 – 1800 Georgian
1900 – 2000+ Industrial, Dormitory, New Towns
History of settlement in Ireland
7000BC Old Stone Age
3500BC New Age
2000BC Bronze Age Settlement
600BCIron Age/Celtic Settlement
500BC Early Christian Settlement
800 / 1000AD Vikings
1100 / 1500 Medieval / Norman era
1500 / 1700 Plantation era
1700 / 1800 Georgian settlements
1900 / 2000+ Industrial – Resort – Dormitory – New Towns
Counter - Urbanisation
Urban workers moving to the countryside
Aim: To protect the future of rural Irish society
Transport links (rural to urban)
Support rural-based industries (Farming/Fishing/Forestry)
Village renewal (make villages more attractive to live in)
Boost tourism in rural areas
Improve water supplies
Provide education and training schemes
County development plans
Each county in Ireland has its own development plan to control urban and rural settlement.
The plan includes lists of committees, organisations, agencies and groups who deal with local concerns and development.
Functions of Urban Settlements
Functions of Urban Settlements
Religious, Residential, Recreational
Functions are the services and activities that an urban area provides for its residents and people of the surrounding areas
Central Place Theory
A central place is a town which provides goods and services for the people who live in and around the town.
Threshold: The population needed to keep a services in business
Range: The maximum distance people will travel for a product or service
Frequency of demand: How often a service is needed.
Rank order: a range of cheap daily items (milk, bread etc) to expensive and rare goods (car, yacht etc)
Hierarchy of settlements
Urban settlements are grouped according to their size and the number of functions they have.
Basically this is a ranking system from smallest to largest. It makes sense that the larger the urban area….the more functions the city will have….supply and demand.