Top enablers and inhibitors of affordable systems
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Top Enablers and Inhibitors of Affordable Systems. Supannika Koolmanojwong, Jo Ann Lane, Rachchabhorn Wongsaroj ,Thammanoon Kawinfruangfukul , and Barry Boehm COCOMO Forum October 22, 2013. Overview. Affordability Tradespace Affordability Opportunity Tree

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Top Enablers and Inhibitors of Affordable Systems

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Top enablers and inhibitors of affordable systems

Top Enablers and Inhibitors of Affordable Systems

Supannika Koolmanojwong, Jo Ann Lane,

RachchabhornWongsaroj,ThammanoonKawinfruangfukul,

and Barry Boehm

COCOMO Forum

October 22, 2013


Overview

Overview

  • Affordability Tradespace

  • Affordability Opportunity Tree

  • Cost Model Parameters Reflect TradespaceDecisions

  • Enablers and Inhibitors of the Affordable systems


Affordability

Affordability

  • “The balance of system performance, cost, and schedule constraints over the system life cycle, while satisfying mission needs in concert with strategic and organizational needs.”

  • Affordable system is achievable via faster engineering and less rework.

INCOSESystems Engineering Handbook, version 3.2.2.

NDIA 8th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference


Expedited system development

Expedited System Development

  • Capability development schedule from concept to delivery

  • Market window opportunity

  • Need to balance

    • shortcuts, one-time solution, maintainability

  • Faster, Faster, & FASTER!

    We have time !!


    System flexibility

    System Flexibility

    • Design for reuse

    • Easily evolve in the future to meet future (unknown) needs

    • Interoperate with future systems

    • Need to balance

      • Performance issues, total ownership costs

    One-time solution

    Everything for everyone


    Technical debt

    Technical Debt

    • Extra works to fix under par jobs

    • Intentional or unintentional debts

    • Need to balance

      • Get it done now, Refactor later, evolutionary plan

    Untidy, poor structured

    Easy to maintain


    Affordability tradespace

    Affordability Tradespace

    Tradespace:

    Capability

    Schedule

    Flexibility

    Technical

    Debt

    Capability

    Capability

    Schedule

    Schedule

    Flexibility

    Flexibility

    Technical

    Debt

    Tech

    Debt

    Desired balance:

    Typical results:


    Example framework affordability opportunity tree

    Example Framework: Affordability Opportunity Tree

    Staffing, Incentivizing, Teambuilding

    Get the Best from People

    (Expedite, Minimize Tech Debt)

    Facilities, Support Services

    Kaizen (continuous improvement)

    Tools and Automation

    Make Tasks More Efficient

    (Expedite)

    Work and Oversight Streamlining

    Collaboration Technology

    Lean and Agile Methods

    Eliminate Tasks

    (Expedite)

    Affordability Improvements and Tradeoffs

    Task Automation

    Model-Based Product Generation

    Early Risk and Defect Elimination

    Eliminate Scrap, Rework

    (Expedite, Minimize Tech Debt)

    Evidence-Based Decision Gates

    Modularity Around Sources of Change

    Incremental, Evolutionary Development

    Value-Based, Agile Process Maturity

    Risk-Based Prototyping


    Example framework affordability opportunity tree1

    Example Framework: Affordability Opportunity Tree

    Affordability Improvements and Tradeoffs

    Risk-Based Prototyping

    Simplify Products (KISS)

    (Expedite)

    Value-Based Capability Prioritization

    Satisficing vs. Optimizing Performance

    Reuse Components

    (Expedite)

    Domain Engineering and Architecture

    Composable Components,Services, COTS

    Legacy System Repurposing

    Reduce Operations, Support Costs

    (Minimize Tech Debt)

    Automate Operations Elements

    Design for Maintainability, Evolvability

    Streamline Supply Chain

    Value- and Architecture-Based

    Tradeoffs and Balancing

    (Longer-term investment, min Tech Debt)

    Anticipate, Prepare for Change


    Affordability analysis with cost models

    Affordability Analysis with Cost Models


    Cost model parameters reflect tradespace decisions systems engineering

    Cost Model Parameters Reflect Tradespace Decisions - Systems Engineering


    Cost model parameters reflect tradespace decisions software engineering

    Cost Model Parameters Reflect Tradespace Decisions – Software Engineering


    Pilot study data collection

    Pilot Study: Data Collection

    • Software Engineering-related Classes

      • 60 graduate students

        • ~ 20%: full-time employee with 2-20 years experience

        • ~80%: Newly graduates, 0-5 years experience

      • 59 undergraduate students

        • 0-3 years experience (internship, co-op)

    • Information sources

      • Lectures, papers, class workshops

    • List enablers and inhibitors for

      • Technical Debt, Expedited Sys Development, Flexibility


    Top enablers

    Top Enablers


    Top enablers1

    Top Enablers


    Top enablers2

    Top Enablers


    Common enablers

    Common Enablers

    • Rapid Prototyping

    Expedited Sys Dev

    Technical Debt

    • Agile / Lean Approaches

    • Incremental test and Feedback

    • Skilled team members

    System Flexibility

    • Reuse, Use of NDI / COTS

    • Incremental test and Feedback

    • Requirements Flexibility

    • Incremental test and Feedback


    Top inhibitors

    Top Inhibitors


    Top inhibitors1

    Top Inhibitors


    Top inhibitors2

    Top Inhibitors


    Common inhibitors

    Common Inhibitors

    Expedited Sys Dev

    Technical Debt

    • Inexperience Team Members

    • Unrealistic expectations

    System Flexibility

    • Technology Immaturity / Volatility

    • Requirements Volatility

    • Lack of / Poor documentation


    Two sides of the same coin

    Two sides of the same coin

    • Reuse, Use of NDI / COTS

      • Enable and inhibit at the same time for all three aspects

    • Lack of documentation

      • Enable the Expedition, but inhibit the TD management and flexibility

  • Agile/Lean Approach

    • Enable the Expedition, but inhibit the TD management and flexibility


  • Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • High similarity of the affordability enablers from Opportunity tree, cost model, and class workshop

      • Get the best people

      • Incremental development

    • Top inhibitors

      • Inexperienced people

      • Unrealistic expectation

    • Wildcard

      • Reuse, use of COTS/ NDI

      • Agile/Lean

      • Lack of documentation


    References

    References

    • INCOSE, Systems Engineering Handbook, version 3.2.2. San Diego, CA, USA: International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). INCOSE-TP-2003-002-03.2, December 2011.

    • Robert Neches, Engineered Resilient Systems (ERS) S&T Priority Description and Roadmap, NDIA 8th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference , 8 November 2011


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