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RtI Training. Presented by: Linda Patterson & Erin Hoskins. What is RtI?. Responsiveness to Intervention A 3 phase problem solving model. Purpose. Tool to identify students who are struggling and are at-risk To provide high-quality intervention matched to student needs

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rti training

RtI Training

Presented by:

Linda Patterson &

Erin Hoskins

what is rti
What is RtI?
  • Responsiveness to Intervention
  • A 3 phase problem solving model
  • Tool to identify students who are struggling and are at-risk
  • To provide high-quality intervention matched to student needs
  • To assist in making important educational decisions
why do it
Why do it?
  • New laws – NCLB and IDEA 2004
  • New requirements
  • More efficient process
  • True team process
  • The outcome and intent of RtI is identification for special education
  • The last stage or “tier” of the model is only special education
  • RtI is only “prereferral”
  • The research basis for RtI is limited to beginning reading

- research with reading is substantial

-research based on using problem solving models for students at-risk or with behavior problems is also substantial

Analyses of outcomes in RtI implementations have improved outcomes in all students and shown reductions in referrals for special education.
changes in belief systems and practices
Changes in Belief Systems and Practices
  • A unified system that places importance on meeting the needs of all students

- view school as a whole and “everyone’s child”

-consider children with disabilities as general education first

  • Embrace a model of prevention not of failure (puts an end to the “wait to fail” model)
  • Early identification and swift intervention
  • Utilizing data to support educational decision making will impact what the teacher is doing to improve achievement
based on following core principles
Based on Following Core Principles
  • We can effectively teach all children
  • Intervene early
  • Use a multi-tier (phase) model of delivery
  • Use a problem-solving method to make decisions within the multi-phase model
  • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instructions to the extent available
Monitor student progress
  • Use data to make decisions
  • Use data for three different purposes:

1. Screening applied to all children to identify those who are not making progress at expected rates

2. Diagnostics to determine what children can and cannot do in important academic and behavioral domains

3. Progress monitoring to determine if interventions are producing desired effects

key components of rti
Key Components of RtI
  • High quality instruction/intervention

-matched to student need

-based on scientific research to produce higher learning rates

  • Learning rate and level of performance

-primary sources of information used in ongoing decision making

- learning rate

-student’s growth in achievement or behavior competencies over time compared to prior levels of performance and peer growth rates

-level of performance

- student’s relative standing on some dimension of achievement/performance compared to expected performance

  • Importance educational decisions

- based on individual student response to instruction across multiple stages of intervention

* Decisions about the use of more or less intense interventions are made using information on learning rate and level

  • Essential to the RtI model

-directly linked to screening, diagnostics, and progress monitoring

  • Screening

-provided to all students several times per year

-express purpose is identifying students who are not making expected progress (at-risk)

-to assess effectiveness of core curriculum

  • Diagnostic Assessment

-used to ascertain specific skill strength and deficits

  • Progress monitoring

-used to evaluate effectiveness of interventions

-to determine intensity of interventions and resources needed to support student learning

structured problem solving process
Structured Problem-Solving Process
  • Required component of RtI
  • Components

- problem identification

- analysis of the problem to hypothesize why it is occurring

- developing a plan to address the problem

-evaluating the student’s response to the intervention/plan selected

  • Can assist in identifying students with similar learning needs and concerns
implementation of rti
Implementation of RtI
  • Tiered levels of Instruction:

-Tier 1

-the foundation – contains the core curriculum (both academic and behavioral)

-should be effective for 80-85% of the students

- focuses on group interventions for all students

- characterized as preventive and proactive

tiered levels of instruction cont
Tiered levels of instruction, cont.

-Tier 2

- serves approximately 15% of students

- interventions are targeted group interventions

-Tier 2 students continue to receive Tier 1 instruction in addition to Tier 2 interventions

- progress should be monitored at least twice a month

tiered levels of instruction cont1
Tiered levels of instruction, cont.

-Tier 3

- serves approximately 5% of students

- students receive intensive individual support

-once students reach target skill levels, the intensity and/or level of support is adjusted

- these students can move fluidly among and between the tiers

regular education support team
Regular Education Support Team
  • …are school based problem-solving teams built on the assumption that teachers in regular education have the ability to resolve many of the instructional and behavioral difficulties experienced by their students. Those same teachers need and deserve the support of their colleagues within the building.
rest members
REST Members
  • Building Principal
  • School Counselor
  • Classroom Teachers
  • School Psychologist
  • At Risk Staff
  • School Nurse (optional)
  • Reading Support
  • Parent (optional)
issues for rest consideration
Academic struggles

Behavioral difficulties

Challenging bright kids

Task completion

Focus, participation, completion

Social/emotional issues

Attendance issues

Assessment performance

Retention consideration

Teacher skill-building

Issues for REST Consideration
how does a teacher access the rest process
How does a teacher access the REST process?

Hesitate to call it a referral!!!

Instead, think of it as a request for assistance.

prior to rest teachers can
Prior to REST, Teachers can…
  • Check the student’s cumulative file
  • Contact parents for input and/or feedback
  • Secure any screening information (i.e. vision, hearing, etc.)
  • Consult other teachers and/or prior teachers if possible
  • Document any interventions implemented
  • List student strengths and prioritize concerns
  • Collect data
  • Write a problem statement
typical 20 minute rest agenda
Typical 20 Minute REST Agenda
  • Teacher requesting assistance identifies student strengths, problem statement, and strategies implemented
  • Team clarification (5 minutes)
  • Team brainstorms interventions (10 minutes)
  • Closure: intervention(s), resources needed, and progress monitoring method reviewed
  • Follow-up support indicated (5 minutes)
problem solving model
Problem Solving Model

Element 1:

Problem Definition and

Baseline Measurement

What is the problem?

Element 4:Element 2:

Evaluation and Problem Analysis

Decision Making and Intervention

Did it work? If not, Development

Consider repeating the process. What will we do about it?

Element 3:

Implementation of


Carry out the interventions

and revise as needed.

element 1 defining the problem
Element 1: Defining the Problem
  • Identify the problem in observable, behavioral terms
  • Identify the setting and expectations and estimate the frequency of the behavior
example of defining the problem
Instead of:

Joey has a hard time writing

A better definition:

When asked to write a story, Joey is able to write two incomplete sentences with approximately 50% of the words spelled correctly. The average student in the class is able to write two paragraphs with 80% of the sentences having correct grammar and 90% of the words spelled right.

Example of Defining the Problem
example of defining the problem1
Instead of:

Serena struggles with reading

A better definition:

When given a reading passage from her social studies book, Serena reads 45 wpm while her average peer reads 70wpm. She struggles to read vocabulary words related to the social studies content.

Example of Defining the Problem
example of defining the problem2
Instead of:

Max is always out of his seat

A better definition:

Max leaves his desk without permission an average of six times per hour during math and reading – only an average of two times an hour during science and social studies. His peers average less than one time per hour.

Example of Defining the Problem
intervention development
Intervention Development
  • Interventions should be…

- implemented by the highly qualified teacher

- scientific research based

- measurable

-progress should be monitored by curriculum based measurements

intervention implementation
Intervention Implementation
  • The following instructional elements may be altered to enhance student performance:

-instructional strategies

-size of instructional group

- time allocated for instruction

- materials used


problem solving model1
Problem Solving Model

Element 1:

Problem Definition and

Baseline Measurement

What is the problem?

Element 4:Element 2:

Evaluation and Problem Analysis

Decision Making and Intervention

Did it work? If not, Development

Consider repeating the process. What will we do about it?

Element 3:

Implementation of


Carry out the interventions

and revise as needed.

  • Center for Innovations and Special Education (Interventions Plus and Choosing the Right Stuff: One Intervention Doesn’t Fit All)
  • National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (Responsiveness to Intervention Symposium 2003)
  • The National Association of State Directors or Special Education (NASDSE) (Myths About Response to Intervention (RtI) Implementation)
  • NASDSE and CASE (Response to Intervention May 2006)

*Detailed references can be provided upon request

  • Hall, S.,Ed.D. (2006). I’ve DIBEL’d, now what? Designing interventions with DIBELS data. Boston, MA: Sopris West Educational Services.
  • www.wrightslaw.com (Research Based Instruction).
  • Integrating Research with Improved Policies and Practices. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities www.nrcld.org/html/research/rti/concepts.html
  • Access to the General Education Curriculum: Research-Based Interventions for High School Students with Disabilities (teleconference/power point by Jean Schumaker, Ph. D.) www.ncset.org/teleconferences/transcripts2004_08a.asp
  • Math Interventions www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/math.asp
  • Behavior Interventions www.disciplinehelp.com/
  • Hawthorne Intervention Manuals (Pre-Referral, Adaptive Behavior, Behavior, Attention Deficit Disorders). Columbia, MO: Hawthorne Educational Services, Inc. www.hes-inc.com