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مبحث اول. مشاوره. دکتر سید مجتبی یاسینی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید صدوقی یزد Email: [email protected] مرور سريع. مشاوره چيست ؟ طبق نظر انجمن مشاوره امريكا ،مشاوره عبارتست از:

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Email: [email protected]


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  • :


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  • (lifestyle)


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  • (Day & Sparacio, 1980, p.246)

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S o l a r

S.O.L.A.R.

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  • SOLAR .


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  • S : (Squarely) .

  • O : (Open) .

  • L : (Lean) .

  • E : (Eye) . .

  • R : (Relax) .


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micro-skill .

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  • ( TherapeuticSilence )


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      .


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  • Self-disclosure ( ) .

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( )

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    • (Here & Now)

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Transference countertransference

Transference & Countertransference

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Transference countertransference1

Transference & Countertransference

  • Transference

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Transference countertransference2

Transference & Countertransference

  • Countertransference

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B a t s

B.A.T.S

Brief

Approach for

Transitioning

Students


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Reverse Tourney Bracket

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Reverse Tourney Bracket

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  • :

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  • .

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  • !!

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THANK YOU

Any question


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:* * * * * : - - - **


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GHQ


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* GHQ 4 - _ _ -

General health Questionnaire _ 28


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Communication


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It Takes Two

  • Communication is a two-way process.

    • Sender

    • Receiver

    • The thought or idea between the two is called the message.


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How do you communicate?

  • Communication comes in many forms.

    • Written

    • Oral

    • Nonverbal

      • Examples?

      • What about touch?


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Actions speak louder than words!

  • Be careful with nonverbal communication.

  • If your words convey one message and your nonverbal gives another, the nonverbal message will be stronger.

  • Who is notorious for this??


What are they saying

What are they saying?

  • Tapping a foot

  • Crossing the arms across the chest

  • Placing hands on your hips

  • Smiling


Receiving the message

Receiving the message

  • Communication cannot take place until the message moves from sender to receiver AND the receiver understands the message.

  • You can use many forms of communication to get your message across.

  • Listen for a response from the receiver.

    • This is called feedback


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  • Poor communication is one of the biggest problems in the workplace.

  • This is often the case because communication is not encouraged.


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Communication Barriers

  • The first step to removing barriers is to identify them.


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Barriers

  • Choice of words

    • Examples?

  • What about interpretation of words?

    • spicy

    • cheap

  • Use precise words to get your point across


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Word Interpretation

  • If you are in doubt about someones interpretation of your words.

  • If a word may be confusing, dont use it or explain what it means to your audience.


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  • When working with people from diverse backgrounds, remember that misinterpretation is more likely.

  • Even legitimate words may words may be taken the wrong way.


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  • No matter how careful you may be, you will eventually offend somebody.

  • How do you keep this from forming a barrier?


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Do not create barriers.

  • Be open, polite, and friendly.

  • Ask for feedback to make sure you are not offending anyone.

  • Listen to others with the same thought in mind.


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Selective Communication

  • Hearing or reading only what you WANT to hear.

  • Skip over what is uncomfortable, inconvenient, unpleasant, or difficult to deal with.

  • NOT an option in the workplace!


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Jargon

  • Specific language that is related to the work environment or field of knowledge.

  • Bring me a copy of the PAF.


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Physical or Distance Barriers

  • Communication may not take place because receiver does not hear message.

    • Background noise

  • Usually easy to overcome

  • Speak up!

  • Step closer to the sender.

  • Turn off the noise.


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Opening up the Channels

  • How can we open up the communication channels?


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Opening up the Channels

  • Have a friendly attitude.

    • thank you

    • Offer help to others

  • Use positive persuasion.

    • Gets others to agree with you.

    • Will be a channel opener for you if you succeed.


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Positive Persuasion

  • Questioning technique

  • Sharing a story.

    • Almost everyone likes to hear a story.

    • Makes the situation more believable to the audience.


Opening up the channels

Opening up the Channels

  • Help others feel important

    • Ask for opinions

    • Seek advice

    • Make them part of the group

  • You will not succeed if you make others feel unimportant and inferior.

  • You may not understand this, but


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Reward the Positive

  • When someone rewards you respond warmly.

  • Let them know you appreciate the gesture.

  • Oh, it was nothing.


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Ignore the Negative

  • When you hear complaints about your actions or performance..just listen.

  • Ignore anything that may be directed towards you personally.

  • Mean, negative comments are best just forgotten

  • CONCENTRATE on what YOU can LEARN from the experience!


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Gossip

  • A VERY powerful channel of communication.

  • Surfaces when people are curious and facts are not available.

  • Check out the validity before sharing it with someone else.

  • May be INTENTIONAL.

  • Sometimes just gets passed along with missing information.


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Review

  • What must we remember about nonverbal communication?

  • What are some barriers in communication?

  • Communication takes

  • How can we open up our communication channels?


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The Egan Helping Model

William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC

Counseling301


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The Egan Model of Helping

  • Two General Types of Difficulties:

    • Problem Situations

      • Situational Distress

  • Missed Opportunities or Unused or Unmet Potential:

  • William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    The Egan Model of Helping

    • Active Listening

    • Throughout the process, a counselor is using active listening skills, empathy, and attending skills with the client.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage I

    • At this stage of counseling the counselor is seeking to help the client identify, explore, and clarify their difficulty. This is done in 3 steps.

    • The Story

      • The counselor helps the client tell his/her story.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage i

    99

    Stage I

    • Identifying & Challenging Blind Spots

      • The counselor helps the client become aware of and overcome their blind spots and develop new perspectives on his/herself and the problem situations.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage i1

    100

    Stage I

    • Challenging blind spots is not the same as telling the client what he/she is doing wrong.

    • It is helping the client see oneself, others, and the world around him/her in more creative ways. Generating possibilities.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage i2

    101

    Stage I

    • Search for Clarification and Themes

      • The counselor helps the client identify and work on difficulties, issues, concerns, or opportunities which will make a difference.

      • The counselor helps the client identify themes throughout many aspects of the story.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage I

    • The counselor helps the client place the issues in a hierarchy.

      • Which one of the issues is most pressing at this moment.

      • Which one does the client want to begin with.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage I

    • In separating the issues into pieces, each becomes more manageable.

    • The client can see the issues as separate goals to be worked on instead of one huge overwhelming problem which cannot be dealt with.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage I

    • As the client chooses one issue to work on, the counselor then seeks more information on the issue.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage I

    • A list of specific behaviors, examples, and feelings are elicited from the client by the counselor.

      • This is done without the use of interrogation or prolonged questioning, but merely asking for specific examples for clarification and understanding.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage i3

    106

    Stage I

    • Oftentimes issues which are brought up by the client have similar themes.

    • As the counselor and client are working on one issue, it has repercussions or bearing on the other remaining issues.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage ii

    107

    Stage II

    • The second stage involves inviting the client to manage or resolve their issues a two stage process.

      • The first stage, as we have seen, is issue or problem identification and clarification.

      • The next stage involves developing preferred scenarios.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage ii1

    108

    Stage II

    • Identifying Preferred Possibilities

      • The counselor helps the client develop a range of possibilities for a better future. The counselor helps the client respond to the statement:

        • Tell me the way you would like it to be.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage ii2

    109

    Stage II

    • Another statement the client and counselor can process is:

    • Tell me the areas you want to change

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage II

    • Creating Viable Goals

      • The counselor helps the client translate preferred possibilities into viable goals.

      • This is done by helping the client choose which one of the possibilities identified in the previous step will be the identified goal.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage ii3

    111

    Stage II

    • Choice & Commitment

      • The counselor will help the client identify the kind of incentives which will enable the client to commit themselves to the agenda and goals they fashion.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage iii

    112

    Stage III

    • Stage III deals with the how the goals are to be accomplished.

    • It is here that the clients will once again be stretched toward using their imagination.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage III

    • Creating a Range of Strategies

      • The counselor helps the client brainstorm a number of different possible plans. The counselor serves as the one who helps the client keep the plan realistic and grounded.

      • Share with me the way this plan helps you attain the goal you have identified.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage iii1

    114

    Stage III

    • Choosing the Best Strategy

      • Once several different options are in place, the counselor helps the client chose the best fit.

      • The use of a formula SAMCET to evaluate each plan is helpful.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    S.A.M.C.E.T.

    • The plan needs to be:

    • S = Simple

    • A = Attainable

    • M = Measurable

    • C = Concrete

    • E = Evaluative

    • T=Timely

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Stage iii2

    116

    Stage III

    • Action

      • All this will be for naught if the client does not implement the plan.

      • Throughout the process, the counselor is checking progress with the client to ensure the goals and issues are the ones which the client truly wants to deal with.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Stage III

    • Please Note:

      • While this is a step by step process, it is also fluid.

      • The client may, at anytime, go back to any one step and do it over.

      • There is a not set time table for each step. It is dependent upon the client, his/her issues, the development of rapport with the counselor, and developmental level of the client.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


    Other models of counseling

    118

    Other Models of Counseling

    • Counseling is a process. It has a clearly defined beginning, middle, and end. There are all sorts of processes out there, but each has the same thing, a beginning middle and end.

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Other Models of Counseling

    • Another model of counseling that is gaining great attention is Solution Focused or Brief Therapy.

    • There are several books which deal with this approach. They include

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Other Models of Counseling

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    Other Models of Counseling

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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    QUESTIONS

    William C. Attridge, MS, LPC, NCC


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