Artificial intelligence in game design
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Artificial Intelligence in Game Design. Probabilistic Finite State Machines. Randomness in Games. Adds to playability Characters less predictable, more “realistic” World itself is less predictable Greater replayability Goal: Randomness should not appear random

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Artificial Intelligence in Game Design

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Artificial intelligence in game design

Artificial Intelligence in Game Design

Probabilistic Finite State Machines


Randomness in games

Randomness in Games

  • Adds to playability

    • Characters less predictable, more “realistic”

    • World itself is less predictable

    • Greater replayability

  • Goal:Randomness should not appear random

    • Part of character “personality”

    • Part of unpredictable world


Randomness inside state

Randomness Inside State

  • Randomness in actions taken by NPC

    • Randomness inside update method

    • Can depend on current state


Randomness inside state1

Randomness Inside State

  • Randomness in Initial Setup

    • Randomness in enter method

    • Example: choice of weapon in Fight state

60%

35%

5%


Randomness in transitions

Randomness in Transitions

  • Same current state + same stimuli = one of several possible next states

    • Possibly including current state

  • Performing different tasks at random

Guard Door andShout for Help

Player visible

60%

Patrol in front of Door

40%

Player visible

Chase

Player


Random behavior timeouts

Random Behavior Timeouts

  • Continue strong emotional behavior for random number of steps

Predator seen

Predator seen

Wander

Flee

Predator not seen

10%

Predator not seen

90%


Unpredictability of world

Unpredictability of World

  • Small chance of “unexpected” occurrence

    • Adds “newness” to game even after multiple plays

    • Adds to “realism” of world

Target in sights98%

Reload

Aim

Fire

Normal case

Finished reloading

Target in sights2%

Gun Jam

Gun cleared

Unexpected case


Randomness in emotional states

Randomness in Emotional States

  • Emotional transitions less predictable

  • Effect of “delayed reaction”

Small hit by player75%

Player HP < 1040%

Player HP < 1060%

Confident

Angry

Small hit by player25%

Heavy hit by player70%

My HP < 1050%

Heavy hit by player30%

My HP < 1050%

Heavy hit by me30%

Frightened

Heavy hit by me70%


Probabilities and personality

Probabilities and Personality

  • NPCs with probabilities can give illusion of personalities

  • Differences must be large enough for player to notice in behavior

Small hit by player10%

Player HP < 1080%

Player HP < 1020%

Confident

Angry

Small hit by player90%

Heavy hit by player70%

My HP < 1080%

Heavy hit by player30%

Orc with anger management issues

Heavy hit by me30%

My HP < 1020%

Frightened

Heavy hit by me70%


Dynamic probabilities

Dynamic Probabilities

  • Likelihood of transition depends on something else

    • More realistic (but not completely predictable)

    • Can give player clues about state of NPC

% of bullets left

Firing

Reload

Player not firing

1- % of bullets left

Guard Door andShout for Help

1- Energy %

Player visible

Patrol in front of Door

Energy %

Chase

Player


Emergent group behavior

Emergent Group Behavior

  • Each NPC in group can choose random behavior

    • Can appear to “cooperate”

    • Half of group fires immediately giving “cover” to rest

    • If player shoots firing players, rest will have time to reach cover

Fire

50 %

Player visible

Patrol

Cover reached

50 %

Take Cover


Emergent group behavior1

Emergent Group Behavior

  • Potential problem:Possibility all in group can choose same action

    • All either shoot or take cover

    • No longer looks intelligent

  • Can base probabilities on actions others take

Fire

1 - % of other players firing

Player visible

Patrol

Cover reached

Take Cover

% of other players firing


Potential problems

Potential Problems

  • Possibly many parameters to tweak

    • How do we know these are the best probabilities to use?

  • Difficult to thoroughly test

    • Combinations of probabilities may create a bad case (i.e. easy win) which is possible but very unlikely

    • That case will be found by some customer


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