Semiconductor Photon Detectors (Ch 18). Semiconductor Photon Sources (Ch 17). Lasers (Ch 15). Photons in Semiconductors (Ch 16). Laser Amplifiers (Ch 14). Photons & Atoms (Ch 13). Quantum (Photon) Optics (Ch 12). Resonators (Ch 10). Electromagnetic Optics (Ch 5). Wave Optics (Ch 2 & 3).
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Semiconductor Photon Detectors (Ch 18)
Semiconductor Photon Sources (Ch 17)
Lasers (Ch 15)
Photons in Semiconductors (Ch 16)
Laser Amplifiers (Ch 14)
Photons & Atoms (Ch 13)
Quantum (Photon) Optics (Ch 12)
Resonators (Ch 10)
Electromagnetic Optics (Ch 5)
Wave Optics (Ch 2 & 3)
Ray Optics (Ch 1)
Optics
Physics
Optoelectronics
Used to find allowed energy levels
O
O
O
O
C
C
C
O
O
C
Eg
3p
3s
2p
Energy
2s
1s
Isolated
Atom
Metal
Semi
conductor
Insulator
Em
Energy Levels
E3
E2
E1
P(Em)
Occupation
f(E)
2
2
2
1
1
1
h
h
h
h
h
Spontaneous Emission
Absorption
Stimulated Emission
2
2
h
1
1
h
h
h
h
Atom
Many Optical Modes
2
2
1
1
h
h
h
h
c t
A
AbsorptionStimulated Emission
(Photons per Unit Area per Unit Time)
E2
21
h
E1
E0
g()
1.Lifetime Broadening
Loss From
Stimulated
Emission
Gain fromN1 Absorption

+

Loss From
Spontaneous
Emission
Stimulated Emission if atom is in the upper energy state and Absorption if in the lower energy state:
Em
Energy Levels
E3
E2
E1
P(Em)
Occupation
FermiDirac Distribution
Boltzmann Distribution
Spontaneous Emission
2
2
2
h
1
1
1
h
Absorption
h
h
h
Stimulated Emission
Where the transition cross section is
with lineshape g() given by: