Phylum arthropoda
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Phylum Arthropoda. Read Chap 31 pgs. 681-703 Dichotomous Key. What is Entomology?. The study of insects (and their near relatives). Species Diversity. PLANTS. INSECTS. OTHER ANIMALS. OTHER ARTHROPODS. Arthropods. Jointed-legged invertebrates. CLASSIFICATION

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Phylum arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda

  • Read Chap 31 pgs. 681-703

  • Dichotomous Key


What is entomology

Whatis Entomology?

The study of insects

(and their near relatives).


Species diversity

Species Diversity

PLANTS

INSECTS

OTHER

ANIMALS

OTHER

ARTHROPODS


Arthropods

Arthropods

Jointed-legged invertebrates


Phylum arthropoda

  • CLASSIFICATION

  • (LEARN EXAMPLES OF EACH CLASS)

  • SUB-Trilobita Crustacea Chelicerata Uniramia

  • PHYLUM

  • CLASSextinct Crustacea Arachnida Chilopoda

  • Diplopoda

  • Insecta

  • ORDER 16


Characteristics of phylum arthropoda

Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda

  • - Segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (in insects = head, thorax, abdomen).

  • - Paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae, wings) are jointed.

  • - Possess chitinous exoskeleton that must be shed during growth.

  • Open circulatory system

  • Nervous system is ventral (belly) and the circulatory system is open and dorsal (back).

  • Complete digestive system

Head Thorax Abdomen


Exoskeleton

Exoskeleton

  • Major reason for success!

  • Provides

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Prevention of dehydration

    • Sites for muscle attachment


Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis

  • Change body form from immature (larval) stages to adult forms

  • Reduces competition between stages for

    • Food

    • Living space


Taxonomy of arthropods

Taxonomy of Arthropods

  • 4 subphyla

    • Trilobitomorpha (all extinct)

    • Chelicerata

    • Crustacea

    • Uniramia

The state fossil of Ohio


Subphylum chelicerata plier like

Subphylum Chelicerata (plier like)

  • Horseshoe crabs

  • Spiders

  • Mites

  • Ticks

  • Scorpions


Scorpion

Scorpion


Scorpion anatomy

Scorpion Anatomy


Scorpion head

Scorpion Head

chelicerae

eyes

pedipalp


Orders of arachnids

Orders of Arachnids

Pseudoscorpion

Tick

(a mite)

Scorpion

Wolf

Spider

Daddy-long-legs


Pseudo scorpion pseudo means false

Pseudo scorpion(pseudo means “false”)


Mite and tick body regions

Mite and Tick Body Regions

pedipalps &

chelicerae

cephalothorax

abdomen


Common ticks

Common ticks

American dog tick male

-Vectors

Rocky mountain spotted fever

Blacklegged (deer) tick female

- Vectors Lyme disease


Phylum arthropoda

American dog tick female laying egg mass (1000-2000 eggs!).


Mites

Mites

Clover mites

Twospotted spider mites

Velvet mite

Predatory mite


Phalanges daddy long legs

Phalanges (daddy-long-legs)

cephalothorax

abdomen


Spider anatomy

Spider Anatomy

pedipalp

chelicera (fang)

cephalothorax

narrow waist

abdomen


Phylum arthropoda

Abdomen

Cephalothorax

Chelicera (fang)

Pedipalp

JumpingSpider


Phylum arthropoda

Wolf spider with egg case

Spitting spider

Orbweaving spider

Tarantula


Dangerous spiders

Dangerous Spiders

Black widow with egg case

Brown recluse

(fiddleback)


Interesting modifications

Interesting modifications

  • Spinnerets

  • Malpighian tubules


Subphylum crustacea

Subphylum Crustacea

  • Shrimp, lobsters, crayfish

  • Fairy shrimp, brine shrimp

  • Water fleas

  • Barnacles


Crustaceans

Crustaceans

Crayfish cephalothorax

(Decapoda)

Sow bug (Isopoda),

a terrestrial crustacean


Class crustacea tremendous variety

CLASS CRUSTACEA tremendous variety

  • daphnia, crabs, lobster, pill bugs, crayfish

  • *primarily aquatic, mostly marine 25,000 species

  • (motile sessile microscopic, 2 ft. or more)

  • *gills, at least 5 pairs of legs

  • *carapace- shield to protect vital organs

  • * branched antennae

  • see lab for specifics of this group


Subphylum uniramia

Subphylum Uniramia

  • Class Diplopoda (millipedes)

  • Class Chilopoda (centipedes)

  • Class Hexapoda (insects)


Phylum arthropoda

[one pair of antennae, head & trunk regions, trunk with many pairs of legs]

Diplopod (Millipede)

Two pair of legs per visible segment, attached under body.

Chilopod (Centipede)

Pair of fangs under head, one pair legs per visible segment - attached to side of body.

Symphyla (Symphyla)[garden centipede]

No fangs, no eyes, legs attached to side of body.


Phylum arthropoda

Millipede (Diplopoda)

Centipede (Chilopoda)

Garden centipede (Symphyla)


Nervous system

Nervous System

  • Johnston’s organs (hearing - on antennae)

  • Tympanic organs (hearing – on legs or body)

  • Compound eyes (facets – ommatidia – fused)

  • Simple eyes (ocelli)


Economic impact of arthropods

Economic Impact of Arthropods

1. Name two effects of each major group has on mankind (good and bad).

Crustacea, Millipede, Centipede, Arachnida

2. For insects, list 4 good things that they do and 4 bad things that they are responsible for.


Insects

Insects

Head Thorax Abdomen


How many kinds insects are there in the world

How Many Kinds Insects are there in the world?

Possibly 3,000,000 unidentified species

  • 1,000,000 species known


Classification of japanese beetle

Classification of Japanese Beetle

  • Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum Arthropoda

  • Class Insecta

  • Order Coleoptera

  • Family Scarabaeidae

  • Genus Popillia

  • Species japonica


Phylum arthropoda

*molting "ecdysiast"-

  • hormone induced changes to create new and larger exoskeleton

  • desiccation potential

  • "instars" periods between molts

  • vulnerable while exchanging skeleton

  • may continue throughout life or end at a particular point


Digestion

DIGESTION

  • foregut

  • ingestion, mechanical breakdown and storage

  • midgut

  • chemical digestion, absorption, enzymatic,

  • (sounds like our intestines)

  • hindgut

  • absorption of water and formation of feces


Respiration handout in binder

RESPIRATION (handout in binder )

Open Circulatory System- blood not confined to the vessels

  • Pericardial sinus- space for gas exchange around the heart (open space)

  • Gases into the body through the spiracles in the exoskeleton (waxy)

  • Trachae- tubes from spiracles to vital locations

  • ***blood is not vital for gas exchange*** rare to find hemoglobin

  • Tracheoles- branches with membranes at the end fluid tipped perhaps


Other possible modifications

other possible modifications

  • *book lungs- look like corrugated cardboard

  • *coordination between opening and closing of spiracles to pump the air in (think of a tire pump)

  • *air sacs at the end of the tracheoles for increased surface area

  • *gills


Phylum arthropoda

  • BEHAVIOR IN THE PHYLUM ARTHROPODA

  • (insects mostly) video Swarming Hordes

  • Communication

  • Chemical, visual, and auditory


Communication

Communication

*chemical

Pheromones- airborne chemicals are used by males can find females for mating purposes

  • 1) releasers- immediate behavior change

  • 2) primers- profound physiological changes

Bug’s Life


Phylum arthropoda

  • humans have exploited this with bug traps (June bugs)

  • Scent trails can be left on the ground during food foraging trips (A BUG’S Life video)

  • plants mimic scents to attract pollinators

  • death pheromones- remove ant from a colony and paint with the chemical, return to colony and is repeatedly carried away.

  • 0.00000001 grams silkworm female can be detected 2 miles


Communication1

Communication

  • *visual-

  • can see ultraviolet wavelengths of light

  • Fireflies use light to attract mates Males are in the air while females remain on the ground


Communication2

Communication

  • *Sound

  • production in grasshoppers, crickets and cicadas

  • scraping of limbs on the exoskeleton, air vibrations along the exoskeleton caused by muscle movement


Mimicry

Mimicry

  • visual, camouflage (hide or lie in ambush)

  • SOUNDS CAN ALSO BE MIMICED

  • (faked you out!)

  • Now you’re dinner!


Social behavior requires communication

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR requires communication

  • A colony can have the same effect as a large single animal

  • Hey, hey, hey do what I tell you


Phylum arthropoda

  • Division of Labor

  • ex. bee hive

  • 80,000 members

  • polymorphic anatomy

  • Drone Worker Queen


What a life

What a life?

  • worker 6 wk. life, sterile female, reproductive organs become stinger, 1,000 s

  • drone- (n) reproductive male, only for mating, 100s, die after mating, killed if food is low

  • queen bee- reproductive female, 5-6 year life


Worker behavior

worker behavior

  • week 1

  • feed queen, drones, larva, secrete "royal jelly"

  • weeks 2-4

  • secrete wax, clean, repair hive, guard,

  • fan in fresh air

  • weeks 5-6

  • gather pollen and nectar


Stand for the queen

Stand for the QUEEN!

  • QUEEN is like other female but she eats "ROYAL JELLY"

  • Secretes "queen factor" which prevents other females from becoming reproductive. Mates once and stores sperm


Butt wiggle dance

Butt wiggle dance


Metamorphosis1

Metamorphosis

  • Incomplete-

  • grasshopper and termite

  • Egg- nymph- adult

  • Immature adult look alike, small ,non-sexual


Metamorphosis2

Metamorphosis

  • Complete

  • butterfly, moth (most insects)

  • Egg-larva-pupa- adult

  • CACOON

  • OR CHRYSALSIS


Phylum arthropoda

  • Controlling factors

  • Sequential expression of genes

  • Brain hormone stimulates molting hormone in thorax gland


Molting hormone released in both where juvenile hormone is present

Molting hormone released in both where juvenile hormone is present

  • JH MH larva molts

  • JH MH larva pupates

  • JH MH pupa to adult

  • Importance of metamorphosis?

  • No competition for food

  • What the caterpillar eats the adult does not


Phylum arthropoda

  • Name ________________________ Period ________

  • CRAYFISH EVALUATION LAB

  • Materials

  • 1 lab set “Dissecting a Crustacean- the Crayfish”

  • Dissecting microscope

  • Dissecting tools

  • STEP 1Examine the external anatomy of a crayfish

  • Follow Procedure A of the LAB NOT STEP 5 ON LIVE CRAYFISH

  • Compare the live specimens w/ diagrams on sheets

  • Describe texture of the crayfish

  • STEP 2Test Crayfish Behavior

  • Lay live crayfish in a clear plastic container

  • Observe/record behavior for 4-5 minutes

  • Observe/record movements (O/R)

  • O/R responses to stimuli on a table with 2 columns (see below)

    • Bubbles gently blown into the water

    • Touch with a probe (Anterior/ Posterior)

    • Touch chelipeds, walking legs, middle of dorsal, telson

    • Darken ½ of the container

    • Shine a light on the anterior

  • 5. Drop one piece of food (shrimp pellet) near the anterior O/R feeding behavior

  • STEP 3 Crayfish Dissection

  • Follow instructions in the lab papers.

  • STEP 4 Reading Assignments

  • 715-719, 720-734

  • EXAMPLE

  • StimulusResponse

  • Probe telson

  • walking leg


Rules for writing a dichotomous key

Rules for writing a dichotomous key

  • 1. always couplets

  • 2. total number of couplets is one less than the total number of items

  • 3. no overlapping measurements

  • 4. only physical descriptions (no behaviors)

  • 5. start couplets with the same word


Test topics

Test Topics

  • Dichotomous Key, Video “Swarming Hordes”, Arthropod Notes,

  • Lab Crayfish dissection and Behavior, Insect Social Behavior,

  • SEQUENTIAL COMPARISON INDEX, relationship between annelids and arthropods, Read (general 715-719, crustacea729-734) Chap 31 in regular BIOLOGY text


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